Abstract

The spectrum of Sc iii has been observed by using a vacuum sliding spark at 250-A peak current. Excellent separation of the Sc i, ii, and iii spectra was achieved by careful control of the excitation-circuit parameters. In all, 93 lines in the region 550–9400 Å are listed, which give rise to 23 new levels. The ionization energy of Sc iii is revised to 199 677.37 ±0.1 cm−1, based on the ng series, and series formulas are presented which were used to predict some of the newly found levels to within 0.25 cm−1. An isoelectronic comparison of Sc iii with K i and Ca ii is made.

© 1973 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. C. Gibbs and H. E. White, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 12, 599 (1926).
  2. S. Smith, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 13, 66 (1927).
    [Crossref]
  3. H. N. Russell and R. J. Lang, Astrophys. J. 66, 19 (1927).
  4. A. Beckman, Bidrag till kännedomen om skandiums specktrum i yttersta ultraviolett (Almqvist and Wiksell, Uppsala, 1937).
  5. R. Buchta, L. J. Curtis, I. Martinson, and J. Brzozowski, Phys. Scr. 4, 55 (1971).
    [Crossref]
  6. G. H. Dieke, H. M. Crosswhite, and B. Dunn, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 820 (1961).
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  7. Wm. R. Callahan, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 695 (1963).
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  8. J. Sugar, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 831 (1963).
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  9. J. Reader, L. Epstein, and J. O. Ekberg, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 273 (1972).
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  10. V. Kaufman, L. J. Radziemski, and K. L. Andrew, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 911 (1966).
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  11. L. J. Radziemski, K. L. Andrew, V. Kaufman, and U. Litzén, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 336 (1967).
    [Crossref]
  12. V. Kaufman and J. F. Ward, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1591 (1966).
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  13. F. P. J. Valero, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 484 (1968).
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  14. D. Goorvitch, F. P. J. Valero, and A. L. Clúa, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 971 (1969).
  15. A. Giacchetti, R. W. Stanley, and R. Zalubas, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 474 (1970).
    [Crossref]
  16. C. E. Moore, Atomic Energy Levels, Vol. I., Natl. Bur. Std. (U.S.) Circ. No. 467 (U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C., 1949).
  17. A. G. Shenstone, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A 235, 195 (1936).
    [Crossref]
  18. B. Edlén and P. Risberg, Ark. Fys. 10, 553 (1956).
  19. M. Born and W. Heisenberg, Z. Phys. 23, 388 (1924).
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  20. I. Waller, Z. Phys. 38, 635 (1926).
    [Crossref]

1972 (1)

1971 (1)

R. Buchta, L. J. Curtis, I. Martinson, and J. Brzozowski, Phys. Scr. 4, 55 (1971).
[Crossref]

1970 (1)

1969 (1)

1968 (1)

1967 (1)

1966 (2)

1963 (2)

1961 (1)

1956 (1)

B. Edlén and P. Risberg, Ark. Fys. 10, 553 (1956).

1936 (1)

A. G. Shenstone, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A 235, 195 (1936).
[Crossref]

1927 (2)

S. Smith, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 13, 66 (1927).
[Crossref]

H. N. Russell and R. J. Lang, Astrophys. J. 66, 19 (1927).

1926 (2)

R. C. Gibbs and H. E. White, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 12, 599 (1926).

I. Waller, Z. Phys. 38, 635 (1926).
[Crossref]

1924 (1)

M. Born and W. Heisenberg, Z. Phys. 23, 388 (1924).
[Crossref]

Andrew, K. L.

Beckman, A.

A. Beckman, Bidrag till kännedomen om skandiums specktrum i yttersta ultraviolett (Almqvist and Wiksell, Uppsala, 1937).

Born, M.

M. Born and W. Heisenberg, Z. Phys. 23, 388 (1924).
[Crossref]

Brzozowski, J.

R. Buchta, L. J. Curtis, I. Martinson, and J. Brzozowski, Phys. Scr. 4, 55 (1971).
[Crossref]

Buchta, R.

R. Buchta, L. J. Curtis, I. Martinson, and J. Brzozowski, Phys. Scr. 4, 55 (1971).
[Crossref]

Callahan, Wm. R.

Clúa, A. L.

Crosswhite, H. M.

Curtis, L. J.

R. Buchta, L. J. Curtis, I. Martinson, and J. Brzozowski, Phys. Scr. 4, 55 (1971).
[Crossref]

Dieke, G. H.

Dunn, B.

Edlén, B.

B. Edlén and P. Risberg, Ark. Fys. 10, 553 (1956).

Ekberg, J. O.

Epstein, L.

Giacchetti, A.

Gibbs, R. C.

R. C. Gibbs and H. E. White, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 12, 599 (1926).

Goorvitch, D.

Heisenberg, W.

M. Born and W. Heisenberg, Z. Phys. 23, 388 (1924).
[Crossref]

Kaufman, V.

Lang, R. J.

H. N. Russell and R. J. Lang, Astrophys. J. 66, 19 (1927).

Litzén, U.

Martinson, I.

R. Buchta, L. J. Curtis, I. Martinson, and J. Brzozowski, Phys. Scr. 4, 55 (1971).
[Crossref]

Moore, C. E.

C. E. Moore, Atomic Energy Levels, Vol. I., Natl. Bur. Std. (U.S.) Circ. No. 467 (U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C., 1949).

Radziemski, L. J.

Reader, J.

Risberg, P.

B. Edlén and P. Risberg, Ark. Fys. 10, 553 (1956).

Russell, H. N.

H. N. Russell and R. J. Lang, Astrophys. J. 66, 19 (1927).

Shenstone, A. G.

A. G. Shenstone, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A 235, 195 (1936).
[Crossref]

Smith, S.

S. Smith, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 13, 66 (1927).
[Crossref]

Stanley, R. W.

Sugar, J.

Valero, F. P. J.

Waller, I.

I. Waller, Z. Phys. 38, 635 (1926).
[Crossref]

Ward, J. F.

White, H. E.

R. C. Gibbs and H. E. White, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 12, 599 (1926).

Zalubas, R.

Ark. Fys. (1)

B. Edlén and P. Risberg, Ark. Fys. 10, 553 (1956).

Astrophys. J. (1)

H. N. Russell and R. J. Lang, Astrophys. J. 66, 19 (1927).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (10)

Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A (1)

A. G. Shenstone, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A 235, 195 (1936).
[Crossref]

Phys. Scr. (1)

R. Buchta, L. J. Curtis, I. Martinson, and J. Brzozowski, Phys. Scr. 4, 55 (1971).
[Crossref]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (2)

R. C. Gibbs and H. E. White, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 12, 599 (1926).

S. Smith, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 13, 66 (1927).
[Crossref]

Z. Phys. (2)

M. Born and W. Heisenberg, Z. Phys. 23, 388 (1924).
[Crossref]

I. Waller, Z. Phys. 38, 635 (1926).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

A. Beckman, Bidrag till kännedomen om skandiums specktrum i yttersta ultraviolett (Almqvist and Wiksell, Uppsala, 1937).

C. E. Moore, Atomic Energy Levels, Vol. I., Natl. Bur. Std. (U.S.) Circ. No. 467 (U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C., 1949).

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Figures (4)

F. 1
F. 1

Schematic of the electrical circuit used to excite and separate the spectra of Sc i, ii, and iii. P, dc power supply (∼1 kVA); S, sliding spark light source; voltage, 600 ≤ V0 ≤ 900 V; inductance, 15 ≤ L ≤ 1100 μh; resistance, 1 ≤ R ≤ 150 Ω. To trigger the circuit, either a rotating spark gap or an ignitron was used.

F. 2
F. 2

Voltage across and current through the light source. Top: L = 68 μh, C = 24 μf, R = 2 ( L / C ) 1 2 (critically damped). Excites mainly Sc iii and spacer impurities. Bottom: L = 860 μh, C = 24 μf, R = 14Ω (slightly overdamped). Excites mainly Sc i and ii, and only the strongest lines of Sc iii.

F. 3
F. 3

Energy-level diagram for Sc iii. The figures give the approximate wavelength of the leading line in each multiplet. The dotted lines are the next predicted levels.

F. 4
F. 4

Isoelectronic sequence for selected levels.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table I Spectrographs used to record the spectra of Sc i, ii, and iii.

Tables Icon

Table II Lines of Sc iii.

Tables Icon

Table III Energy levels of Sc iii.

Tables Icon

Table IV Ionization energies obtained from the different series following Shenstone (Ref. 17). Constants for the extended Ritz quantum-defect formula used for predictions.

Equations (4)

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δ n n n * = 9.153 908 × 10 3 7.047 72 × 10 8 T n 1.9855 × 10 14 T n 2 , E ion = 199 677.37 cm 1 ,
E ion = 199 677.37 ± 0.1 cm 1 .
δ n n n * = a + b t n + c t n 2 + d t n 3 + e t n 4 , t n T n R Z c 2 = ( 1 n * ) 2 ,
| T ( I + 1 ) T ( I ) | 10 2 cm 1 ,