Abstract

The enhancement of the detectability for trace absorptions by placing samples inside the laser cavity was found to be a factor of 100 for a flash-lamp-pumped dye laser and one thousand for a cw dye laser. High-resolution spectra showed that the holes in the laser output were as narrow as the absorptions that caused them. An approximately linear relationship (rather than the step-function behavior often associated with threshold phenomena) exists between pressures necessary to produce visually identical absorption spectra from samples placed inside and outside of the laser cavity. If such a relationship is of general occurrence, it will greatly facilitate the use of intracavity absorption for quantitative analysis, determination of relative absorption cross sections, and for the study of the kinetics of appearance and disappearance of transient species.

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References

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  1. N. C. Peterson, M. J. Kurylo, W. Braun, A. M. Bass, and R.A. Keller, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 746 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. A. Keller, E. F. Zalewski, and N. C. Peterson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 319 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. J. Thrash, H. Von Weyssenhoff, and J. S. Shirk, J. Chem. Phys. 55, 4659 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. W. Hansen, A. L. Schawlow, and P. E. Toschek, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 8, 802 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. B. Klein, Opt. Commun. 5, 114 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. H. Atkinson, A. H. Laufer, and M. J. Kurylo, J. Chem. Phys. 59, 350 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. D. Simmons and R. A. Keller, AppL Opt. 12, 2033 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Dienes, E. Ippen, and C. Shank, IEEE J. Quantum Electron 8, 388 (1972).
    [CrossRef]

1973 (2)

G. H. Atkinson, A. H. Laufer, and M. J. Kurylo, J. Chem. Phys. 59, 350 (1973).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Simmons and R. A. Keller, AppL Opt. 12, 2033 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1972 (4)

A. Dienes, E. Ippen, and C. Shank, IEEE J. Quantum Electron 8, 388 (1972).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Keller, E. F. Zalewski, and N. C. Peterson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 319 (1972).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Hansen, A. L. Schawlow, and P. E. Toschek, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 8, 802 (1972).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Klein, Opt. Commun. 5, 114 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1971 (2)

R. J. Thrash, H. Von Weyssenhoff, and J. S. Shirk, J. Chem. Phys. 55, 4659 (1971).
[CrossRef]

N. C. Peterson, M. J. Kurylo, W. Braun, A. M. Bass, and R.A. Keller, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 746 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Atkinson, G. H.

G. H. Atkinson, A. H. Laufer, and M. J. Kurylo, J. Chem. Phys. 59, 350 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Bass, A. M.

N. C. Peterson, M. J. Kurylo, W. Braun, A. M. Bass, and R.A. Keller, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 746 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Braun, W.

N. C. Peterson, M. J. Kurylo, W. Braun, A. M. Bass, and R.A. Keller, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 746 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Dienes, A.

A. Dienes, E. Ippen, and C. Shank, IEEE J. Quantum Electron 8, 388 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, T. W.

T. W. Hansen, A. L. Schawlow, and P. E. Toschek, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 8, 802 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E.

A. Dienes, E. Ippen, and C. Shank, IEEE J. Quantum Electron 8, 388 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Keller, R. A.

J. D. Simmons and R. A. Keller, AppL Opt. 12, 2033 (1973).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Keller, E. F. Zalewski, and N. C. Peterson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 319 (1972).
[CrossRef]

N. C. Peterson, M. J. Kurylo, W. Braun, A. M. Bass, and R.A. Keller, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 746 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Klein, M. B.

M. B. Klein, Opt. Commun. 5, 114 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Kurylo, M. J.

G. H. Atkinson, A. H. Laufer, and M. J. Kurylo, J. Chem. Phys. 59, 350 (1973).
[CrossRef]

N. C. Peterson, M. J. Kurylo, W. Braun, A. M. Bass, and R.A. Keller, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 746 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Laufer, A. H.

G. H. Atkinson, A. H. Laufer, and M. J. Kurylo, J. Chem. Phys. 59, 350 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Peterson, N. C.

R. A. Keller, E. F. Zalewski, and N. C. Peterson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 319 (1972).
[CrossRef]

N. C. Peterson, M. J. Kurylo, W. Braun, A. M. Bass, and R.A. Keller, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 746 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Schawlow, A. L.

T. W. Hansen, A. L. Schawlow, and P. E. Toschek, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 8, 802 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Shank, C.

A. Dienes, E. Ippen, and C. Shank, IEEE J. Quantum Electron 8, 388 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Shirk, J. S.

R. J. Thrash, H. Von Weyssenhoff, and J. S. Shirk, J. Chem. Phys. 55, 4659 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Simmons, J. D.

J. D. Simmons and R. A. Keller, AppL Opt. 12, 2033 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Thrash, R. J.

R. J. Thrash, H. Von Weyssenhoff, and J. S. Shirk, J. Chem. Phys. 55, 4659 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Toschek, P. E.

T. W. Hansen, A. L. Schawlow, and P. E. Toschek, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 8, 802 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Von Weyssenhoff, H.

R. J. Thrash, H. Von Weyssenhoff, and J. S. Shirk, J. Chem. Phys. 55, 4659 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Zalewski, E. F.

R. A. Keller, E. F. Zalewski, and N. C. Peterson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 319 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Other (8)

N. C. Peterson, M. J. Kurylo, W. Braun, A. M. Bass, and R.A. Keller, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 746 (1971).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Keller, E. F. Zalewski, and N. C. Peterson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 319 (1972).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Thrash, H. Von Weyssenhoff, and J. S. Shirk, J. Chem. Phys. 55, 4659 (1971).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Hansen, A. L. Schawlow, and P. E. Toschek, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 8, 802 (1972).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Klein, Opt. Commun. 5, 114 (1972).
[CrossRef]

G. H. Atkinson, A. H. Laufer, and M. J. Kurylo, J. Chem. Phys. 59, 350 (1973).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Simmons and R. A. Keller, AppL Opt. 12, 2033 (1973).
[CrossRef]

A. Dienes, E. Ippen, and C. Shank, IEEE J. Quantum Electron 8, 388 (1972).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Intracavity I2 absorption as a function of the I2 pressure in a fiash-lamp-pumped dye laser, 10-cm sample cell.

Temperature (°C)22110
Pressure (torr)2.5 × 10−18.9 × 10−23.2 × 10−2
Temperature (°C)−9−20−9
Pressure (torr)1.3 × 10−23.7 × 10−31.2 × 10−3
Temperature (°C)−39−46
Pressure (torr)3.2 × 10−41.1 × 10−4
Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Comparison of intracavity and extracavity I2 absorption in a flash-lamp-pumped dye laser, 10-cm sample cell. A and D—sample inside the laser cavity; B—sample outside the laser cavity; C—Hg calibration. Pressure −0.25 torr in A and B and 3 × 10−3 torr in C.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison of intracavity and extracavity I2 absorption in a flash-lamp-pumped dye laser. Internal cell was 10 cm and external cell was 71 cm. A and C—sample inside the laser cavity; B—sample external to laser cavity. Optical path; A is 0.32 torr cm, B is 19.0 torr cm, C is 0.13 torr cm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Visually equivalent I2 absorption spectra internal and external to the flash-lamp-pumped laser cavity, as a function of the optical path length.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Intracavity I2 absorption as a function of the I2 pressure in a cw dye laser. Top: temperature—77 K, pressure—0; middle: temperature—300 K, pressure—10−1 torr; bottom: temperature—210 K, pressure—10−6 torr.

Equations (2)

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log Φ b / Φ 0 δ ( 1 τ b / τ 0 ) ,
log Φ b / Φ 0 δ β C / l R ,