Abstract

A self-supporting Fresnel zone plate with empty transparent zones has been used to focus vacuum-ultraviolet (vuv) radiation with wavelengths as short as 565 Å. The radiation was produced by two broad-band sources, (i) the molecular continuum of a helium gas-discharge lamp, which extends from 600 to 1100 Å with a broad peak at 810 Å, and (ii) the synchrotron continuum of an electron storage ring filtered by a Sn filter, which extends from 520 to 750 Å with a broad peak at 565 Å. The zone plate was used as a simple converging lens to form an optical image of an object mesh on a sodium salicylate film, where it was photographically recorded. Magnifications of 20× and linear resolutions within an order of magnitude of the theoretical resolution limit of the zone plate were obtained. Applications of this device as a vuv microscope are discussed.

© 1973 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. A. V. Baez, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 405 (1961), and references therein.
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. H. M. Chau, Appl. Opt. 8, 1209 (1969).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. The resolution of the Fresnel zone plate is affected by the number of zones in the plate as well as by the bandwidth of the source of illumination. For a discussion of zone-plate aberrations, see Ref. 4 and the references therein.
  4. M. Young, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 972 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Produced by Buckbee Mears Co., 245 E. 6th St., St. Paul, Minn. 55101.
  6. R. E. Huffman, Y. Tanaka, and J. C. Larrabee, Appl. Opt. 2, 617 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. M. Stone, Radiation and Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1963), p. 130.
  8. Physical Sciences Laboratory, University of Wisconsin, P. O. Box 6, Stoughton, Wisconsin 53589.
  9. J. A. R. Samson, Vacuum Ultraviolet Spectroscopy (Wiley, New York, 1967), pp. 113–119.
  10. Reference 9, pp. 188–200.
  11. P. M. Keating, R. K. Mueller, and T. Sawatari, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 945 (1972).
    [CrossRef]

1972 (2)

1969 (1)

1963 (1)

1961 (1)

Appl. Opt. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (3)

Other (6)

Produced by Buckbee Mears Co., 245 E. 6th St., St. Paul, Minn. 55101.

The resolution of the Fresnel zone plate is affected by the number of zones in the plate as well as by the bandwidth of the source of illumination. For a discussion of zone-plate aberrations, see Ref. 4 and the references therein.

J. M. Stone, Radiation and Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1963), p. 130.

Physical Sciences Laboratory, University of Wisconsin, P. O. Box 6, Stoughton, Wisconsin 53589.

J. A. R. Samson, Vacuum Ultraviolet Spectroscopy (Wiley, New York, 1967), pp. 113–119.

Reference 9, pp. 188–200.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Zone-plate photograph. The zone plate is made of gold foil 2–3 μm thick with empty transparent zones. It contains 38 zones with an inner-zone radius r1 of 51 μm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of the zone-plate optical system. The helium light source, S, was positioned 11 cm from the object mesh, and a 0.8-mm aperture stop, A, was located at the mesh, M. The synchrotron light source was imaged on the object mesh without an aperture stop and a Sn film was located in front of the salicylate window to filter the radiation. The light source, object mesh and salicylate window, W, were held in fixed positions, and the zone plate, ZP, could be moved along the axis of the system, varying Si and S0. Images were photographed with a Tektronix C-12 scope camera, C, using Polaroid film.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Ultraviolet continuum of the high-pressure helium discharge lamp. The photon flux near the 810-Å peak was nominally 109 photon/(A cm2 s) at the object mesh.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Photographs of vuv images formed by Fresnel zone plate with helium continuum illumination using Polaroid ASA 3000 film. From left to right, the appropriate wavelengths λf for the photographs are 650, 800, and 1000 Å, respectively. Note that the 60-μm grid is clearly visible on the λf = 800-Å photograph. The photographs are 60-min time exposures with a Tektronix C-12 scope camera set at f/1.9 using high-speed Polaroid film. The granular nature of the image is due to variations of the thickness of the sodium salicylate film on which the image was formed.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Ultraviolet continuum of the synchrotron source. The solid line is the synchrotron continuum focused at the object mesh by an ellipsoidal mirror, and the broken line is the synchrotron continuum filtered by the Sn film. The photon flux at the 565-Å peak of the filtered continuum was norminally 109 photon/(Å cm2 s) at the object mesh.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Photographs of the synchrotron-continuum images using Polaroid ASA 10 000 film. From left to right the appropriate wavelengths λf for the photographs are 525, 565, and 670Å. The diameter of the zero-order spot is determined by various stops in the system used to reduce scattered light. The photographs are 60-min time exposures with a Tektronix C-12 scope camera set at f/1.9 using high-speed Polaroid film. The granular nature of the image is due to variations of the thickness of the sodium salicylate film on which the image was formed.

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I 1 ( P ) = ( N + 1 ) 2 I 0 ( P ) .
r n = n 1 2 r 1 .
Δ r n = r n r n 1 = r 1 / 2 n 1 2
f = r 1 2 / λ ,
d f / f = d λ / λ .
δ θ = 1.22 λ D ,
δ R 0 = 1.22 r 1 / 2 N 1 2 .
δ R 0 = 1.22 Δ r N .
S i = S 0 f ( S 0 f ) .
λ f = K r 1 2 S 0 ( K S 0 ) .