Abstract

The spatial-contrast-transfer function of the light-adapted retina is recorded at various eccentricities and the point spread function is evaluated. The estimate of receptive field size thus obtained is compared to that based on data recorded with the aid of a modified version of the Hermann-Hering grid. The order of magnitude of the estimate is found to be the same in either case and to increase from 30° to 60° nasal. However, the conspicuity of the Hermann-Hering illusion is found to decrease when the length of the bars exceeds a given value, which is presumably related to the outer diameter of the contrast detectors. This effect is tentatively ascribed to the coming into play of oblong-shaped receptive units.

© 1972 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. G. Westheimer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 86 (1963); F. W. Campbell and D. G. Green, J. Physiol. (London) 181, 576 (1965).
    [Crossref]
  2. O. Bryngdahl, Pflüg. Arch. 280, 362 (1962); Vision Res. 6, 553 (1966).
  3. D. H. Kelly, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 1115 (1960).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. G. Baumgartner, Pflüg. Arch. 272, 21 (1960).
    [Crossref]
  5. L. Spillmann and H. Kornhuber, Pflüg. Arch. 279, 5 (1964); R. Jung and L. Spillmann, in Early Experience and Visual Information Processing, edited by F. A. Young and D. B. Lindsey (Natl. Acad. Sci., Washington, D. C., 1970), p. 181; L. Spillmann, Pflüg. Arch. 326, 281 (1971); Exptl. Brain Res. 13, 547 (1971).
    [Crossref]
  6. L. Ronchi, Mod. Probl. Ophthalmol. 11, 47 (1972).
  7. L. Ronchi and G. Bottai, Atti Fond. Giorgio Ronchi Contrib. Ist. Naz. Ottica,  18, 47 (1963), L. Ronchi and G. Salvi, Atti Fond. Giorgio Ronchi Contrib. Ist. Naz. Ottica,  20, 192 (1965).
  8. W. H. Payne and D. E. Anderson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 229 (1969).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. C. T. White, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 1116 (1960).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. G. Westheimer, J. Physiol. (London) 190, 139 (1967); J. M. Enoch and R. N. Sunga, Doc. Ophthalmol. 26, 215 (1969); D. Y. Teller and B. Lindsey, Vision Res. 10, 1045 (1970).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. M. H. Pirenne and J. Denton, Nature,  170, 1039 (1952); E. P. Hallett, Vision Res. 3, 9 (1963); W. Richards, Neuropsychologia,  5, 63 (1967); J. P. Thomas, G. J. Padilla, and D. L. Rourke, Vision Res. 9, 283 (1969).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. B. Julesz, in Information Processing in Sight Sensory Systems (Calif. Inst. of Technology, Pasadena, Calif., 1965), p. 81.
  13. D. H. Teller, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 509 (1969).
  14. D. H. Hubel and T. N. Wiesel, J. Neurophysiol. 28, 229 (1965); J. Physiol. (London) 148, 574 (1959).
    [PubMed]

1972 (1)

L. Ronchi, Mod. Probl. Ophthalmol. 11, 47 (1972).

1969 (2)

1967 (1)

G. Westheimer, J. Physiol. (London) 190, 139 (1967); J. M. Enoch and R. N. Sunga, Doc. Ophthalmol. 26, 215 (1969); D. Y. Teller and B. Lindsey, Vision Res. 10, 1045 (1970).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1965 (1)

D. H. Hubel and T. N. Wiesel, J. Neurophysiol. 28, 229 (1965); J. Physiol. (London) 148, 574 (1959).
[PubMed]

1964 (1)

L. Spillmann and H. Kornhuber, Pflüg. Arch. 279, 5 (1964); R. Jung and L. Spillmann, in Early Experience and Visual Information Processing, edited by F. A. Young and D. B. Lindsey (Natl. Acad. Sci., Washington, D. C., 1970), p. 181; L. Spillmann, Pflüg. Arch. 326, 281 (1971); Exptl. Brain Res. 13, 547 (1971).
[Crossref]

1963 (2)

L. Ronchi and G. Bottai, Atti Fond. Giorgio Ronchi Contrib. Ist. Naz. Ottica,  18, 47 (1963), L. Ronchi and G. Salvi, Atti Fond. Giorgio Ronchi Contrib. Ist. Naz. Ottica,  20, 192 (1965).

G. Westheimer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 86 (1963); F. W. Campbell and D. G. Green, J. Physiol. (London) 181, 576 (1965).
[Crossref]

1962 (1)

O. Bryngdahl, Pflüg. Arch. 280, 362 (1962); Vision Res. 6, 553 (1966).

1960 (3)

1952 (1)

M. H. Pirenne and J. Denton, Nature,  170, 1039 (1952); E. P. Hallett, Vision Res. 3, 9 (1963); W. Richards, Neuropsychologia,  5, 63 (1967); J. P. Thomas, G. J. Padilla, and D. L. Rourke, Vision Res. 9, 283 (1969).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anderson, D. E.

Baumgartner, G.

G. Baumgartner, Pflüg. Arch. 272, 21 (1960).
[Crossref]

Bottai, G.

L. Ronchi and G. Bottai, Atti Fond. Giorgio Ronchi Contrib. Ist. Naz. Ottica,  18, 47 (1963), L. Ronchi and G. Salvi, Atti Fond. Giorgio Ronchi Contrib. Ist. Naz. Ottica,  20, 192 (1965).

Bryngdahl, O.

O. Bryngdahl, Pflüg. Arch. 280, 362 (1962); Vision Res. 6, 553 (1966).

Denton, J.

M. H. Pirenne and J. Denton, Nature,  170, 1039 (1952); E. P. Hallett, Vision Res. 3, 9 (1963); W. Richards, Neuropsychologia,  5, 63 (1967); J. P. Thomas, G. J. Padilla, and D. L. Rourke, Vision Res. 9, 283 (1969).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hubel, D. H.

D. H. Hubel and T. N. Wiesel, J. Neurophysiol. 28, 229 (1965); J. Physiol. (London) 148, 574 (1959).
[PubMed]

Julesz, B.

B. Julesz, in Information Processing in Sight Sensory Systems (Calif. Inst. of Technology, Pasadena, Calif., 1965), p. 81.

Kelly, D. H.

Kornhuber, H.

L. Spillmann and H. Kornhuber, Pflüg. Arch. 279, 5 (1964); R. Jung and L. Spillmann, in Early Experience and Visual Information Processing, edited by F. A. Young and D. B. Lindsey (Natl. Acad. Sci., Washington, D. C., 1970), p. 181; L. Spillmann, Pflüg. Arch. 326, 281 (1971); Exptl. Brain Res. 13, 547 (1971).
[Crossref]

Payne, W. H.

Pirenne, M. H.

M. H. Pirenne and J. Denton, Nature,  170, 1039 (1952); E. P. Hallett, Vision Res. 3, 9 (1963); W. Richards, Neuropsychologia,  5, 63 (1967); J. P. Thomas, G. J. Padilla, and D. L. Rourke, Vision Res. 9, 283 (1969).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ronchi, L.

L. Ronchi, Mod. Probl. Ophthalmol. 11, 47 (1972).

L. Ronchi and G. Bottai, Atti Fond. Giorgio Ronchi Contrib. Ist. Naz. Ottica,  18, 47 (1963), L. Ronchi and G. Salvi, Atti Fond. Giorgio Ronchi Contrib. Ist. Naz. Ottica,  20, 192 (1965).

Spillmann, L.

L. Spillmann and H. Kornhuber, Pflüg. Arch. 279, 5 (1964); R. Jung and L. Spillmann, in Early Experience and Visual Information Processing, edited by F. A. Young and D. B. Lindsey (Natl. Acad. Sci., Washington, D. C., 1970), p. 181; L. Spillmann, Pflüg. Arch. 326, 281 (1971); Exptl. Brain Res. 13, 547 (1971).
[Crossref]

Teller, D. H.

D. H. Teller, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 509 (1969).

Westheimer, G.

G. Westheimer, J. Physiol. (London) 190, 139 (1967); J. M. Enoch and R. N. Sunga, Doc. Ophthalmol. 26, 215 (1969); D. Y. Teller and B. Lindsey, Vision Res. 10, 1045 (1970).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Westheimer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 86 (1963); F. W. Campbell and D. G. Green, J. Physiol. (London) 181, 576 (1965).
[Crossref]

White, C. T.

Wiesel, T. N.

D. H. Hubel and T. N. Wiesel, J. Neurophysiol. 28, 229 (1965); J. Physiol. (London) 148, 574 (1959).
[PubMed]

Atti Fond. Giorgio Ronchi Contrib. Ist. Naz. Ottica (1)

L. Ronchi and G. Bottai, Atti Fond. Giorgio Ronchi Contrib. Ist. Naz. Ottica,  18, 47 (1963), L. Ronchi and G. Salvi, Atti Fond. Giorgio Ronchi Contrib. Ist. Naz. Ottica,  20, 192 (1965).

J. Neurophysiol. (1)

D. H. Hubel and T. N. Wiesel, J. Neurophysiol. 28, 229 (1965); J. Physiol. (London) 148, 574 (1959).
[PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (5)

G. Westheimer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 86 (1963); F. W. Campbell and D. G. Green, J. Physiol. (London) 181, 576 (1965).
[Crossref]

D. H. Kelly, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 1115 (1960).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. T. White, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 1116 (1960).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. H. Payne and D. E. Anderson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 229 (1969).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. H. Teller, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 509 (1969).

J. Physiol. (London) (1)

G. Westheimer, J. Physiol. (London) 190, 139 (1967); J. M. Enoch and R. N. Sunga, Doc. Ophthalmol. 26, 215 (1969); D. Y. Teller and B. Lindsey, Vision Res. 10, 1045 (1970).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mod. Probl. Ophthalmol. (1)

L. Ronchi, Mod. Probl. Ophthalmol. 11, 47 (1972).

Nature (1)

M. H. Pirenne and J. Denton, Nature,  170, 1039 (1952); E. P. Hallett, Vision Res. 3, 9 (1963); W. Richards, Neuropsychologia,  5, 63 (1967); J. P. Thomas, G. J. Padilla, and D. L. Rourke, Vision Res. 9, 283 (1969).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pflüg. Arch. (3)

G. Baumgartner, Pflüg. Arch. 272, 21 (1960).
[Crossref]

L. Spillmann and H. Kornhuber, Pflüg. Arch. 279, 5 (1964); R. Jung and L. Spillmann, in Early Experience and Visual Information Processing, edited by F. A. Young and D. B. Lindsey (Natl. Acad. Sci., Washington, D. C., 1970), p. 181; L. Spillmann, Pflüg. Arch. 326, 281 (1971); Exptl. Brain Res. 13, 547 (1971).
[Crossref]

O. Bryngdahl, Pflüg. Arch. 280, 362 (1962); Vision Res. 6, 553 (1966).

Other (1)

B. Julesz, in Information Processing in Sight Sensory Systems (Calif. Inst. of Technology, Pasadena, Calif., 1965), p. 81.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The modified version of the Hermann-Hering grid used a single cross of variable width (s) and length (l), orientation angle (α) and intersection angle (ω).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

J0 response curves and point spread function at different eccentricities.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Dependence of brightness (at the intersection) on bar width s; α=0°; ω=90°. Crosses (×), eccentricity 30°; open triangles (△), 40°; open circles (○), 50°; solid circles (●), 60°.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Dependence of brightness at the intersection on bar length l; α=0°; ω=90°. Solid squares (■), eccentricity 10° nasal; open squares (□), 20°; open triangles (△), 30°; crosses (×), 40°; open circles (○), 50°; solid circles (●), 60°.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Percent increment of area Ab covered by the black cross, needed to produce a unit decrement of brightness at the crossing, plotted vs the logarithm of Ab (expressed in mm2). Solid squares (■), crosses (×), and solid circles (●) refer to eccentricities of 10°, 30°, and 60° nasal, respectively.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Dependence of brightness (at the intersection) on rotation angle α. Data recorded in different sessions are averaged. Eccentricity, 60°; ω=40°.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Dependence of brightness (at the intersection) on angle ω. Eccentricity, 60°; α=0°.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

General summary of receptive-field estimates, at different eccentricities. Open squares (□) and open circles (○) refer to the point spread function, and represent the core of the outer diameter of the unit, respectively; plusses (+) and crosses (×) refer to the maximum conspicuity of the illusion, attained by varying the width and the length, respectively. Solid circles (●) refer to the threshold of perception of the illusion, determined by varying the width of the bars.