Abstract

A ruling engine that has produced gratings of larger size and greater power than hitherto available is described, as are the characteristics of gratings and echelles ruled by it. This MIT C engine, now fitted to rule blanks of sizes up to 450 × 650 × 125 mm weighing up to several hundred kg, was constructed by applying interferometric translation and mirror-parallelism control to a modified Moore No. 4 Universal Measuring Machine without Y or Z motion. To the base of this were added monorail diamond ways, two diamond carriages and lifters, special end-thrust bearings, mountings for lasers, and a diamond drive with heavy flywheels. Developed by use of the results of experience with our B and A engines, the new machine shows greater mechanical and thermal stability than either, and has produced well-blazed echelles and gratings of superior quality up to the 580-mm (23 in.) diagonal size, at spacings between 632 and 31.6 grooves/mm. The total length of groove per grating is limited at present to about 80 km by diamond wear, and the speed of ruling by internal vibrations and electronic noise. Ghost, satellite, and scatter intensities are at the low levels characteristic of B-engine gratings.

© 1972 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. E. G. Loewen, The Echelle Story (Bausch & Lomb, Rochester, N. Y., 1971); E. G. Loewen, The Advent of Large Gratings for Astronomy (Bausch & Lomb, Rochester, N. Y., 1971).
  2. G. R. Harrison and G. W. Stroke, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 112 (1955); G. R. Harrison, N. Sturgis, S. C. Baker, and G. W. Stroke, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 15 (1957).
    [Crossref]
  3. G. R. Harrison and S. W. Thompson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 591 (1970).
    [Crossref]
  4. K. N. Rao, A. W. Mantz, and B. D. Alpert, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 1569A (1970).
  5. W. Liller, Appl. Opt. 9, 2332 (1970); W. A. Rense, Space Sci. Rev. 5, 234 (1966); D. J. Schroeder, Appl. Opt. 6, 1976 (1967).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. Reference 3, p. 595
  7. G. R. Harrison and S. W. Thompson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 1569A (1970).
    [Crossref]
  8. J. A. Anderson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 6, 434 (1922).
  9. See W. R. Moore, Foundations of Mechanical Accuracy (Moore Special Tool Co., Bridgeport, Conn., 1971).
  10. We are grateful to A. E. Johnson and V. Fimbers of the Moore Company for skillful engineering design and suggestions.
  11. Reference 3, p. 592.

1970 (4)

1955 (1)

1922 (1)

Alpert, B. D.

K. N. Rao, A. W. Mantz, and B. D. Alpert, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 1569A (1970).

Anderson, J. A.

Harrison, G. R.

Liller, W.

Loewen, E. G.

E. G. Loewen, The Echelle Story (Bausch & Lomb, Rochester, N. Y., 1971); E. G. Loewen, The Advent of Large Gratings for Astronomy (Bausch & Lomb, Rochester, N. Y., 1971).

Mantz, A. W.

K. N. Rao, A. W. Mantz, and B. D. Alpert, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 1569A (1970).

Moore, W. R.

See W. R. Moore, Foundations of Mechanical Accuracy (Moore Special Tool Co., Bridgeport, Conn., 1971).

Rao, K. N.

K. N. Rao, A. W. Mantz, and B. D. Alpert, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 1569A (1970).

Stroke, G. W.

Thompson, S. W.

G. R. Harrison and S. W. Thompson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 591 (1970).
[Crossref]

G. R. Harrison and S. W. Thompson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 1569A (1970).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (5)

Other (5)

See W. R. Moore, Foundations of Mechanical Accuracy (Moore Special Tool Co., Bridgeport, Conn., 1971).

We are grateful to A. E. Johnson and V. Fimbers of the Moore Company for skillful engineering design and suggestions.

Reference 3, p. 592.

Reference 3, p. 595

E. G. Loewen, The Echelle Story (Bausch & Lomb, Rochester, N. Y., 1971); E. G. Loewen, The Advent of Large Gratings for Astronomy (Bausch & Lomb, Rochester, N. Y., 1971).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The basic mechanical engine, ready for addition of diamond carriages, drive mechanism, and interferometric laser control. Only one carriage and cylindrical way is used for most rulings, although two 250-mm echelles have been ruled simultaneously. Total length is more than 2 m. The steel straightedges under the ways were later replaced with stouter bars of fused silica.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The C engine almost ready for operation, with diamond drive and a 125 × 250-mm blank in place.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Diamond drive arranged for minimum vibration, permitting up to 12 strokes of 490-mm amplitude/min. Main engine-drive motor is mounted at base of pier.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

A standard 6-in. concave grating, having ruled area of 75 × 140 mm and 600 grooves/mm, beside a 300 × 400-mm plane grating having 632 grooves/mm. At normal incidence, the white strip is reflected with 75% efficiency in the first order on the left.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Efficiency curve in the first-order red for grating C-049, a 300 × 400-mm grating having 261 000 grooves, showing gradual increase with diamond wear of efficiency, and its later decrease. This curve is merely representative, as the wavelength used was not exactly in the single-order position.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Interferogram of the wave front at 51° (fourth-order red) of a 200 × 370-mm echelle. Some irregularities, especially at the ends of the fringes, arise from defects in the test interferometer.