Abstract

An optical-lever technique was used to stabilize the retinal image, in order to determine spatial contrast-transfer functions for several modes of presentation of rectangularly and sinusoidally modulated bar patterns. These modes include a sudden replacement of a uniform field by a bar pattern, the replacement of a bar pattern by a uniform field, the intermittent presentation of a bar pattern at several repetition rates, and the sudden superposition of a uniform field on a bar pattern. Average retinal illuminances of 50 and 5 td were used. The outcomes of these experiments enable us to decompose the spatial contrast-transfer function for the case of normal vision into a branch due to the positive primary image and a branch due to a negative afterimage. The interaction of the primary image and the afterimage causes spatial transients in the image to be enhanced.

© 1972 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. G. von Békésy, Vision Res. 8, 1483 (1968).
    [Crossref]
  2. J. M. B. Sparrock, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 872 (1969).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. A. L. Yarbus, Eye Movements and Vision (Plenum, New York, 1967), p. 77.
  4. The method is thought to be due to H. L. de Vries. However, I could find no published reference to the method.
  5. M. Alpern, in The Eye, edited by H. Davson (Academic, New York, 1962), Vol. IV, p. 9.
  6. J. J. Koenderink, W. A. van de Grind, and M. A. Bouman, Kybernetik 8, 128 (1971).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

1971 (1)

J. J. Koenderink, W. A. van de Grind, and M. A. Bouman, Kybernetik 8, 128 (1971).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1969 (1)

1968 (1)

G. von Békésy, Vision Res. 8, 1483 (1968).
[Crossref]

Alpern, M.

M. Alpern, in The Eye, edited by H. Davson (Academic, New York, 1962), Vol. IV, p. 9.

Bouman, M. A.

J. J. Koenderink, W. A. van de Grind, and M. A. Bouman, Kybernetik 8, 128 (1971).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koenderink, J. J.

J. J. Koenderink, W. A. van de Grind, and M. A. Bouman, Kybernetik 8, 128 (1971).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sparrock, J. M. B.

van de Grind, W. A.

J. J. Koenderink, W. A. van de Grind, and M. A. Bouman, Kybernetik 8, 128 (1971).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

von Békésy, G.

G. von Békésy, Vision Res. 8, 1483 (1968).
[Crossref]

Yarbus, A. L.

A. L. Yarbus, Eye Movements and Vision (Plenum, New York, 1967), p. 77.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Kybernetik (1)

J. J. Koenderink, W. A. van de Grind, and M. A. Bouman, Kybernetik 8, 128 (1971).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vision Res. (1)

G. von Békésy, Vision Res. 8, 1483 (1968).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

A. L. Yarbus, Eye Movements and Vision (Plenum, New York, 1967), p. 77.

The method is thought to be due to H. L. de Vries. However, I could find no published reference to the method.

M. Alpern, in The Eye, edited by H. Davson (Academic, New York, 1962), Vol. IV, p. 9.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Principle of the stabilization method. The image of the object Q by lens L is located at the center of rotation of the eye R. The contact lens C provides a sharp image Q* of Q on the retina. A change of the angle α does not result in a translation of the image Q* relative to the retina, because both the retinal structures and the image Q* are displaced over the same distance.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Face mask on which all optical parts and the satimultion apparatus were mounted. The function of the different parts is explained in the text. A is the platform carrier; B is the positive lens mounted over right eye hole; C is the platform; D, E, I are the 45° prisms; F is the cathode-ray tube; G is the mounting screw; H is the lamp housing for fixation light; J is the positive lens of the fixation device over left eye hole; K is the plastic face mask; and L is the clasp for elastic strap.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Logarithmic plot of the threshold modulation (in percent) as a function of the spatial frequency (in cycles per degree) for rectangular bar patterns. Background illuminance 50 td. Filled circles: switch-on mode. Open squares: switch-off mode.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Threshold modulation on a logarithmic scale plotted against the spatial frequency on a quadratic scale. Filled circles: switch-off mode, open circles: switch-on mode. Sine wave at 50 td.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Same as Fig. 4, except square wave at 50 td.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Same as Fig. 4, except square wave at 5 td. E denotes the magnitude of the experimental (rms) error.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Threshold modulation as a function of the spatial frequency for the intermittent mode of presentation. Upper curve: temporal frequency 20 Hz. Lower curve: temporal frequency 1 Hz. A sine-wave pattern at 50 td was used.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Threshold modulation as a function of the spatial frequency for the case of normal (unstabilized) vision. A sine-wave pattern was used. Background illuminance 50 td.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Threshold modulation as a function of the spatial frequency for the perception of a secondary stimulus negative afterimage. A sine-wave pattern was used. The background illuminance was switched from 50 to 80 td.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Curve a: sum of the line-spread functions for the switch-on and switch-off modes of presentation. Curve b: line-spread function for unstabilized vision. The bar indicates the magnitude of the estimated error.