Abstract

A crowded photographic emulsion is viewed as a sandwich of stacked, crowded monolayers. An earlier renewal model of granularity in a crowded monolayer, combined with a new analysis of the general way in which granularity propagates through layers, leads to predictions of the granularity of the multilayer sandwich as a function of the number of layers. For a fixed concentration of grains per unit projected area in the sandwich, rms density fluctuations increase as the number of layers decreases because rms transmittance fluctuations decrease at a slower rate than mean transmittance. These changes are similar to the entropy decrease of grain configurations in the emulsion. For sandwiches consisting of at least 15 layers having a maximum density not greater than 2, the change of rms density fluctuations vs mean density for an exposure series is accurately predicted by the honest random-dot model. Any discrepancy between the theoretical predictions of the honest random-dot model and experimental data for normal emulsions cannot be attributed solely to the neglect of crowding constraints by that model.

© 1972 Optical Society of America

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