Abstract

Experiments have been carried out to investigate the excitation of molecules by evanescent light, and the emission of evanescent light in the fluorescence of excited molecules. It is confirmed that the absorption proceeds at a rate proportional to the second-order (normally ordered) product of the complex field amplitude, whether the light field is homogeneous or evanescent, and that the emission process follows a reciprocity principle.

© 1972 Optical Society of America

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  1. G. Quincke, Ann. Phys. Chem. 127, 1 (1866).
  2. E. E. Hall, Phys. Rev. 15, 73 (1902).
  3. P. Selenyi, Compt. Rend. 157, 1408 (1913).
  4. P. Fröhlich, Ann. Physik (4) 65, 577 (1921).
  5. D. D. Coon, Am. J. Phys. 34, 240 (1966).
  6. For example, see H. Bücher, K. H. Drexhage, M. Fleck, H. Kuhn, D. Möbius, F. P. Schäfer, J. Sondermann, W. Sperling, P. Tillmann, and J. Wiegand, Mol. Cryst. 2, 199 (1967) and K. H. Drexhage, Sci. Am. 222, 108 (1970).
  7. H. Nassenstein, Phys. Letters 28A, 249 (1968); also Optik 29, 597 (1969) and 30, 44 (1969).
  8. O. Bryngdahl, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 1645 (1969).
  9. R. N. Smartt, Appl. Opt. 9, 970 (1970).
  10. C. J. Bouwkamp, Rept. Progr. Phys. 17, 39 (1954).
  11. E. Wolf, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 74, 269 (1959).
  12. G. Toraldo di Francia, Nuovo Cimento 16, 61 (1960).
  13. P. C. Clemmow, The Plane Wave Spectrum Representation of Electromagnetic Fields, Ist ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1966).
  14. G. C. Sherman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 1160 (1967); 57, 1490 (1967).
  15. J. R. Shewell and E. Wolf, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 1596 (1968).
  16. E. Lalor, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 1235 (1968).
  17. A. Walther, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 1256 (1968); 59, 1325 (1969).
  18. R. Asby and E. Wolf, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 52 (1971).
  19. P. J. Leurgans and A. F. Turner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37, 983(A) (1947).
  20. See, for example, N. J. Harrick, Internal Reflection Spec-Iroscopy (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1967).
  21. C. Carniglia and L. Mandel, Phys. Rev. D 3, 280 (1971).
  22. See, for example, M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 4th ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1970), p. 38.
  23. The experiments were actually conducted with two different dielectrics on opposite sides of the interface, rather than with one dielectric and air. However as the ratio n of the two refractive indices is the only significant parameter, we have simplified the treatment.
  24. L. Mandel, E. C. G. Sudarshan, and E. Wolf, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 84, 435 (1964).
  25. R. J. Glauber, Phys. Rev. 131, 2766 (1963).
  26. The set of fatty-acid layers constitutes a uniaxial, birefringent medium, whose optic axis is perpendicular to the plane of the layers. By using only T.E.-polarized light in the experiment, we avoided complications arising from the birefringence. The ordinary refractive index of the layers matched the refractive index of the glass slide, so that the fatty-acid-glass interface had no effect on the light beam passing through.
  27. See also L. M. Brekhovskikb, Waves in Layered Medio (Academic, New York, 1960).
  28. K. Miyamoto and E. Wolf, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 615 (1962).
  29. E. Lalor and G. C. Sherman, unpublished.
  30. The refractive index of the Clerici solution varied over a period of days, but the index ratio was determined after each experimental run. That is why different n values were chosen for the theoretical curves in Figs. 5 and 7.

Asby, R.

R. Asby and E. Wolf, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 52 (1971).

Born, M.

See, for example, M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 4th ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1970), p. 38.

Bouwkamp, C. J.

C. J. Bouwkamp, Rept. Progr. Phys. 17, 39 (1954).

Brekhovskikb, L. M.

See also L. M. Brekhovskikb, Waves in Layered Medio (Academic, New York, 1960).

Bryngdahl, O.

O. Bryngdahl, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 1645 (1969).

Bücher, H.

For example, see H. Bücher, K. H. Drexhage, M. Fleck, H. Kuhn, D. Möbius, F. P. Schäfer, J. Sondermann, W. Sperling, P. Tillmann, and J. Wiegand, Mol. Cryst. 2, 199 (1967) and K. H. Drexhage, Sci. Am. 222, 108 (1970).

Carniglia, C.

C. Carniglia and L. Mandel, Phys. Rev. D 3, 280 (1971).

Clemmow, P. C.

P. C. Clemmow, The Plane Wave Spectrum Representation of Electromagnetic Fields, Ist ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1966).

Coon, D. D.

D. D. Coon, Am. J. Phys. 34, 240 (1966).

di Francia, G. Toraldo

G. Toraldo di Francia, Nuovo Cimento 16, 61 (1960).

Drexhage, K. H.

For example, see H. Bücher, K. H. Drexhage, M. Fleck, H. Kuhn, D. Möbius, F. P. Schäfer, J. Sondermann, W. Sperling, P. Tillmann, and J. Wiegand, Mol. Cryst. 2, 199 (1967) and K. H. Drexhage, Sci. Am. 222, 108 (1970).

Fleck, M.

For example, see H. Bücher, K. H. Drexhage, M. Fleck, H. Kuhn, D. Möbius, F. P. Schäfer, J. Sondermann, W. Sperling, P. Tillmann, and J. Wiegand, Mol. Cryst. 2, 199 (1967) and K. H. Drexhage, Sci. Am. 222, 108 (1970).

Fröhlich, P.

P. Fröhlich, Ann. Physik (4) 65, 577 (1921).

Glauber, R. J.

R. J. Glauber, Phys. Rev. 131, 2766 (1963).

Hall, E. E.

E. E. Hall, Phys. Rev. 15, 73 (1902).

Harrick, N. J.

See, for example, N. J. Harrick, Internal Reflection Spec-Iroscopy (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1967).

Kuhn, H.

For example, see H. Bücher, K. H. Drexhage, M. Fleck, H. Kuhn, D. Möbius, F. P. Schäfer, J. Sondermann, W. Sperling, P. Tillmann, and J. Wiegand, Mol. Cryst. 2, 199 (1967) and K. H. Drexhage, Sci. Am. 222, 108 (1970).

Lalor, E.

E. Lalor and G. C. Sherman, unpublished.

E. Lalor, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 1235 (1968).

Leurgans, P. J.

P. J. Leurgans and A. F. Turner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37, 983(A) (1947).

Mandel, L.

L. Mandel, E. C. G. Sudarshan, and E. Wolf, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 84, 435 (1964).

C. Carniglia and L. Mandel, Phys. Rev. D 3, 280 (1971).

Miyamoto, K.

K. Miyamoto and E. Wolf, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 615 (1962).

Möbius, D.

For example, see H. Bücher, K. H. Drexhage, M. Fleck, H. Kuhn, D. Möbius, F. P. Schäfer, J. Sondermann, W. Sperling, P. Tillmann, and J. Wiegand, Mol. Cryst. 2, 199 (1967) and K. H. Drexhage, Sci. Am. 222, 108 (1970).

Nassenstein, H.

H. Nassenstein, Phys. Letters 28A, 249 (1968); also Optik 29, 597 (1969) and 30, 44 (1969).

Quincke, G.

G. Quincke, Ann. Phys. Chem. 127, 1 (1866).

Schäfer, F. P.

For example, see H. Bücher, K. H. Drexhage, M. Fleck, H. Kuhn, D. Möbius, F. P. Schäfer, J. Sondermann, W. Sperling, P. Tillmann, and J. Wiegand, Mol. Cryst. 2, 199 (1967) and K. H. Drexhage, Sci. Am. 222, 108 (1970).

Selenyi, P.

P. Selenyi, Compt. Rend. 157, 1408 (1913).

Sherman, G. C.

G. C. Sherman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 1160 (1967); 57, 1490 (1967).

E. Lalor and G. C. Sherman, unpublished.

Shewell, J. R.

J. R. Shewell and E. Wolf, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 1596 (1968).

Smartt, R. N.

R. N. Smartt, Appl. Opt. 9, 970 (1970).

Sondermann, J.

For example, see H. Bücher, K. H. Drexhage, M. Fleck, H. Kuhn, D. Möbius, F. P. Schäfer, J. Sondermann, W. Sperling, P. Tillmann, and J. Wiegand, Mol. Cryst. 2, 199 (1967) and K. H. Drexhage, Sci. Am. 222, 108 (1970).

Sperling, W.

For example, see H. Bücher, K. H. Drexhage, M. Fleck, H. Kuhn, D. Möbius, F. P. Schäfer, J. Sondermann, W. Sperling, P. Tillmann, and J. Wiegand, Mol. Cryst. 2, 199 (1967) and K. H. Drexhage, Sci. Am. 222, 108 (1970).

Sudarshan, E. C. G.

L. Mandel, E. C. G. Sudarshan, and E. Wolf, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 84, 435 (1964).

Tillmann, P.

For example, see H. Bücher, K. H. Drexhage, M. Fleck, H. Kuhn, D. Möbius, F. P. Schäfer, J. Sondermann, W. Sperling, P. Tillmann, and J. Wiegand, Mol. Cryst. 2, 199 (1967) and K. H. Drexhage, Sci. Am. 222, 108 (1970).

Turner, A. F.

P. J. Leurgans and A. F. Turner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37, 983(A) (1947).

Walther, A.

A. Walther, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 1256 (1968); 59, 1325 (1969).

Wiegand, J.

For example, see H. Bücher, K. H. Drexhage, M. Fleck, H. Kuhn, D. Möbius, F. P. Schäfer, J. Sondermann, W. Sperling, P. Tillmann, and J. Wiegand, Mol. Cryst. 2, 199 (1967) and K. H. Drexhage, Sci. Am. 222, 108 (1970).

Wolf, E.

R. Asby and E. Wolf, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 52 (1971).

L. Mandel, E. C. G. Sudarshan, and E. Wolf, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 84, 435 (1964).

J. R. Shewell and E. Wolf, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 1596 (1968).

See, for example, M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 4th ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1970), p. 38.

K. Miyamoto and E. Wolf, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 615 (1962).

E. Wolf, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 74, 269 (1959).

Other (30)

G. Quincke, Ann. Phys. Chem. 127, 1 (1866).

E. E. Hall, Phys. Rev. 15, 73 (1902).

P. Selenyi, Compt. Rend. 157, 1408 (1913).

P. Fröhlich, Ann. Physik (4) 65, 577 (1921).

D. D. Coon, Am. J. Phys. 34, 240 (1966).

For example, see H. Bücher, K. H. Drexhage, M. Fleck, H. Kuhn, D. Möbius, F. P. Schäfer, J. Sondermann, W. Sperling, P. Tillmann, and J. Wiegand, Mol. Cryst. 2, 199 (1967) and K. H. Drexhage, Sci. Am. 222, 108 (1970).

H. Nassenstein, Phys. Letters 28A, 249 (1968); also Optik 29, 597 (1969) and 30, 44 (1969).

O. Bryngdahl, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 1645 (1969).

R. N. Smartt, Appl. Opt. 9, 970 (1970).

C. J. Bouwkamp, Rept. Progr. Phys. 17, 39 (1954).

E. Wolf, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 74, 269 (1959).

G. Toraldo di Francia, Nuovo Cimento 16, 61 (1960).

P. C. Clemmow, The Plane Wave Spectrum Representation of Electromagnetic Fields, Ist ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1966).

G. C. Sherman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 1160 (1967); 57, 1490 (1967).

J. R. Shewell and E. Wolf, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 1596 (1968).

E. Lalor, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 1235 (1968).

A. Walther, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 1256 (1968); 59, 1325 (1969).

R. Asby and E. Wolf, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 52 (1971).

P. J. Leurgans and A. F. Turner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37, 983(A) (1947).

See, for example, N. J. Harrick, Internal Reflection Spec-Iroscopy (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1967).

C. Carniglia and L. Mandel, Phys. Rev. D 3, 280 (1971).

See, for example, M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 4th ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1970), p. 38.

The experiments were actually conducted with two different dielectrics on opposite sides of the interface, rather than with one dielectric and air. However as the ratio n of the two refractive indices is the only significant parameter, we have simplified the treatment.

L. Mandel, E. C. G. Sudarshan, and E. Wolf, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 84, 435 (1964).

R. J. Glauber, Phys. Rev. 131, 2766 (1963).

The set of fatty-acid layers constitutes a uniaxial, birefringent medium, whose optic axis is perpendicular to the plane of the layers. By using only T.E.-polarized light in the experiment, we avoided complications arising from the birefringence. The ordinary refractive index of the layers matched the refractive index of the glass slide, so that the fatty-acid-glass interface had no effect on the light beam passing through.

See also L. M. Brekhovskikb, Waves in Layered Medio (Academic, New York, 1960).

K. Miyamoto and E. Wolf, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 615 (1962).

E. Lalor and G. C. Sherman, unpublished.

The refractive index of the Clerici solution varied over a period of days, but the index ratio was determined after each experimental run. That is why different n values were chosen for the theoretical curves in Figs. 5 and 7.

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