Abstract

Four methods of heterochromatic photometry were employed, using the same four observers in each case. These were (i) two types of direct heterochromatic photometry (direct comparison with white, and step by step), (ii) flicker photometry, and (iii) the minimally distinct-border method (MDB). The MDB method is shown to yield results that are linear and obey Abney’s law. Flicker and MDB methods generate relative luminous-efficiency functions that agree well with each other and also with the CIE standard observer as modified by Judd; the methods of direct heterochromatic photometry yield data that agree fairly well with each other, whereas they differ greatly from the data obtained by flicker or MDB. Luminous efficiency as measured by the direct methods seems to receive a contribution from two sources, (a) achromatic signals of the photopic visual system, which exclusively determine the MDB setting, and (b) chromatic signals of the visual system, which produce extra brightness, the amount of which is related to the saturation of the stimulus used.

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  1. See Y. LeGrand, Light, Colour and Vision, Second ed., translated by R. W. G. Hunt, J. W. T. Walsh, and F. R. W. Hunt (Chapman and Hall, London, 1968), Ch. 6; also J. W. T. Walsh, Photometry, 3d ed. (Dover, New York, 1965), for detailed discussions of the problems raised here.
  2. G. Heath, Science 128, 775 (1958).
  3. J. L. Brown, L. Phares, and D. E. Fletcher, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 950 (1960).
  4. H. E. Ives, Phil. Mag. 24, 149 (1912).
  5. J. Guild, in Discussion on Vision (Physical Society, London, 1932); in Sources of Color Science, edited by D. L. MacAdam (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1971), p. 213.
  6. The bracketed portions of this quotation have been supplied by us.
  7. R. M. Boynton and P. K. Kaiser, Science 161, 366 (1968).
  8. P. K. Kaiser, P. A. Herzberg, and R. M. Boynton, Vision Res. 11, 953 (1971).
  9. D. B. Judd, in CIE (Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage) Proceedings, 12th Session Stockholm, 1951 (Bureau Central CIE, 57 rue de Pépinère, Paris, 1952), Vol. 1, Pt. 7, p. 11.
  10. P. K. Kaiser, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 966 (1971).
  11. A. Dresler, Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. (London) 18, 141 (1953).
  12. C. L. Sanders and G. Wyszecki, in CIE (Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage) Proceedings, 15th Session Vienna, 1963 (Bureau Central CIE, 57 rue de Pépinère, Paris, 1964), Vol. B, p. 221.
  13. S. L. Guth, N. J. Donley, and R. T. Marrocco, Vision Res. 9, 537 (1969).
  14. R. M. Boynton and T. S. Greenspon, Vision Res. 12, 495 (1972).

Boynton, R. M.

P. K. Kaiser, P. A. Herzberg, and R. M. Boynton, Vision Res. 11, 953 (1971).

R. M. Boynton and P. K. Kaiser, Science 161, 366 (1968).

R. M. Boynton and T. S. Greenspon, Vision Res. 12, 495 (1972).

Brown, J. L.

J. L. Brown, L. Phares, and D. E. Fletcher, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 950 (1960).

Donley, N. J.

S. L. Guth, N. J. Donley, and R. T. Marrocco, Vision Res. 9, 537 (1969).

Dresler, A.

A. Dresler, Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. (London) 18, 141 (1953).

Fletcher, D. E.

J. L. Brown, L. Phares, and D. E. Fletcher, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 950 (1960).

Greenspon, T. S.

R. M. Boynton and T. S. Greenspon, Vision Res. 12, 495 (1972).

Guild, J.

J. Guild, in Discussion on Vision (Physical Society, London, 1932); in Sources of Color Science, edited by D. L. MacAdam (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1971), p. 213.

Guth, S. L.

S. L. Guth, N. J. Donley, and R. T. Marrocco, Vision Res. 9, 537 (1969).

Heath, G.

G. Heath, Science 128, 775 (1958).

Herzberg, P. A.

P. K. Kaiser, P. A. Herzberg, and R. M. Boynton, Vision Res. 11, 953 (1971).

Ives, H. E.

H. E. Ives, Phil. Mag. 24, 149 (1912).

Judd, D. B.

D. B. Judd, in CIE (Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage) Proceedings, 12th Session Stockholm, 1951 (Bureau Central CIE, 57 rue de Pépinère, Paris, 1952), Vol. 1, Pt. 7, p. 11.

Kaiser, P. K.

P. K. Kaiser, P. A. Herzberg, and R. M. Boynton, Vision Res. 11, 953 (1971).

R. M. Boynton and P. K. Kaiser, Science 161, 366 (1968).

P. K. Kaiser, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 966 (1971).

LeGrand, Y.

See Y. LeGrand, Light, Colour and Vision, Second ed., translated by R. W. G. Hunt, J. W. T. Walsh, and F. R. W. Hunt (Chapman and Hall, London, 1968), Ch. 6; also J. W. T. Walsh, Photometry, 3d ed. (Dover, New York, 1965), for detailed discussions of the problems raised here.

Marrocco, R. T.

S. L. Guth, N. J. Donley, and R. T. Marrocco, Vision Res. 9, 537 (1969).

Phares, L.

J. L. Brown, L. Phares, and D. E. Fletcher, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 950 (1960).

Sanders, C. L.

C. L. Sanders and G. Wyszecki, in CIE (Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage) Proceedings, 15th Session Vienna, 1963 (Bureau Central CIE, 57 rue de Pépinère, Paris, 1964), Vol. B, p. 221.

Wyszecki, G.

C. L. Sanders and G. Wyszecki, in CIE (Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage) Proceedings, 15th Session Vienna, 1963 (Bureau Central CIE, 57 rue de Pépinère, Paris, 1964), Vol. B, p. 221.

Other (14)

See Y. LeGrand, Light, Colour and Vision, Second ed., translated by R. W. G. Hunt, J. W. T. Walsh, and F. R. W. Hunt (Chapman and Hall, London, 1968), Ch. 6; also J. W. T. Walsh, Photometry, 3d ed. (Dover, New York, 1965), for detailed discussions of the problems raised here.

G. Heath, Science 128, 775 (1958).

J. L. Brown, L. Phares, and D. E. Fletcher, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 950 (1960).

H. E. Ives, Phil. Mag. 24, 149 (1912).

J. Guild, in Discussion on Vision (Physical Society, London, 1932); in Sources of Color Science, edited by D. L. MacAdam (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1971), p. 213.

The bracketed portions of this quotation have been supplied by us.

R. M. Boynton and P. K. Kaiser, Science 161, 366 (1968).

P. K. Kaiser, P. A. Herzberg, and R. M. Boynton, Vision Res. 11, 953 (1971).

D. B. Judd, in CIE (Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage) Proceedings, 12th Session Stockholm, 1951 (Bureau Central CIE, 57 rue de Pépinère, Paris, 1952), Vol. 1, Pt. 7, p. 11.

P. K. Kaiser, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 966 (1971).

A. Dresler, Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. (London) 18, 141 (1953).

C. L. Sanders and G. Wyszecki, in CIE (Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage) Proceedings, 15th Session Vienna, 1963 (Bureau Central CIE, 57 rue de Pépinère, Paris, 1964), Vol. B, p. 221.

S. L. Guth, N. J. Donley, and R. T. Marrocco, Vision Res. 9, 537 (1969).

R. M. Boynton and T. S. Greenspon, Vision Res. 12, 495 (1972).

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