Abstract

This paper presents the results of an effort to predict the optical properties of a clean-water type as a function of wavelength. The prediction is based on extensive experimental spectral values for the irradianceattenuation coefficient and the irradiance reflectance for clean, naturally occurring water, together with an analytical expression for the shape of the asymptotic radiance distribution and a synthesized table of spectral values for the total scattering coefficient based on recent experimental data obtained by Morel in the Mediterranean Sea. The values predicted for the total attenuation coefficient are found to compare favorably with recent data for the total attenuation coefficient obtained at several wavelengths by Austin, in the Sargasso Sea. Other optical properties predicted herein are found to be consistent with experimental values recently reported in the literature.

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  1. R. W. Preisendorfer, in Monograph No. 10—Symposium on Radiant Energy in the Sea, edited by N. Jerlov (I.U.G.G. Publ. Off., 39 ter, Rue Gay-Lussac, Paris, 1960), p. 11.
  2. R. W. Preisendorfer, in Physical Aspects of Light in the Sea, edited by J. E. Tyler (University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, 1964), p. 51.
  3. J. E. Tyler, in Radiative Energy Transfer (Pergamon, New York, 1968), p. 340.
  4. J. E. Tyler and R. W. Preisendorfer, The Sea (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1962), Vol. I, p. 446.
  5. J. E. Tyler, J. Marine Res. 21, 102 (1963).
  6. By brighter (or darker) we mean that the radiance distribution is distorted in this manner relative to its asymptotic distribution.
  7. J. E. Tyler, J. Marine Res. 16, 96 (1958).
  8. J. E. Tyler, Univ. Calif. Bull. Scripps Inst. Oceanog. 7, 363 (1960), see figure on p. 388.
  9. V. A. Timofeyeva, Doklady Akad. Sci. USSR, Geophys. 76, 677 (1951).
  10. V. A. Timofeyeva, Moscow Hydrophys. Inst. Trans. 3, 35 (1953). Translated by Translation Div., Foreign Technol. Div., WP-AFB, Ohio (Natl. Tech. Information Service, AD-695946).
  11. N. G. Jerlov and M. Fukuda, Tellus 12, 348 (1960).
  12. N. G. Jerlov and K. Nygård, Medd. Fran Oceanografiska Inst. I Goteborg, Ser. B, 8, No. 11, 25 (1961).
  13. A. Morel, Cahiers Oceanog. 20, 291 (1968).
  14. R. W. Preisendorfer, J. Marine Res. 18, 1 (1959).
  15. Morel (in Electromagnetics of the Sea, AGARD Conf. Proc. No. 77 AGARD-CP-77-70, AD-716-305, 1970; footnote p. 30–3) has reported an error in computing the values of the scattering coefficients given in Ref. 12, viz., "Une erreur numédrique s'est glisée dans le calcul présenté Ref. 19 (Ref. 12): la valeur de l'intégrale normalisée n'est pas 22.5 mais (π×22.5); cette omission se répercute sur toutes les valeurs numériques présentées ensuite; un rectificatif sera prochainement donné."
  16. E. O. Hulburt, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 35, 698 (1945.)
  17. S. A. Sullivan, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 962 (1963).
  18. G. L. Clarke and H. R. James, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 29, 43 (1939).
  19. H. R. James and E. A. Birge, Trans. Wisc. Acad. Sci. 31 (1938) (see Tables I and II).
  20. T. J. Petzold and R. W. Austin, Scripps Inst. Oceanog. Ref. 6809 (1968) (Natd. Tech. Information Service, AD 669232). Also available from authors (Visibility Lab., Scripps Inst. Oceanog., P.O. Box 109, La Jolla, Calif. 92037).
  21. J. E. Tyler, W. H. Richardson, and R. W. Holmes, J. Geophys. Res. 64, 667 (1959).
  22. J. E. Tyler and R. C. Smith, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1390 (1966).
  23. J. E. Tyler and R. C. Smith, Measurements of Spectral Irradiance Underwater (Gordon and Breach, New York, 1970).

Austin, R. W.

T. J. Petzold and R. W. Austin, Scripps Inst. Oceanog. Ref. 6809 (1968) (Natd. Tech. Information Service, AD 669232). Also available from authors (Visibility Lab., Scripps Inst. Oceanog., P.O. Box 109, La Jolla, Calif. 92037).

Birge, E. A.

H. R. James and E. A. Birge, Trans. Wisc. Acad. Sci. 31 (1938) (see Tables I and II).

Clarke, G. L.

G. L. Clarke and H. R. James, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 29, 43 (1939).

Fukuda, M.

N. G. Jerlov and M. Fukuda, Tellus 12, 348 (1960).

Holmes, R. W.

J. E. Tyler, W. H. Richardson, and R. W. Holmes, J. Geophys. Res. 64, 667 (1959).

Hulburt, E. O.

E. O. Hulburt, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 35, 698 (1945.)

James, H. R.

G. L. Clarke and H. R. James, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 29, 43 (1939).

H. R. James and E. A. Birge, Trans. Wisc. Acad. Sci. 31 (1938) (see Tables I and II).

Jerlov, N. G.

N. G. Jerlov and K. Nygård, Medd. Fran Oceanografiska Inst. I Goteborg, Ser. B, 8, No. 11, 25 (1961).

N. G. Jerlov and M. Fukuda, Tellus 12, 348 (1960).

Morel, A.

A. Morel, Cahiers Oceanog. 20, 291 (1968).

Nygård, K.

N. G. Jerlov and K. Nygård, Medd. Fran Oceanografiska Inst. I Goteborg, Ser. B, 8, No. 11, 25 (1961).

Petzold, T. J.

T. J. Petzold and R. W. Austin, Scripps Inst. Oceanog. Ref. 6809 (1968) (Natd. Tech. Information Service, AD 669232). Also available from authors (Visibility Lab., Scripps Inst. Oceanog., P.O. Box 109, La Jolla, Calif. 92037).

Preisendorfer, R. W.

R. W. Preisendorfer, in Physical Aspects of Light in the Sea, edited by J. E. Tyler (University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, 1964), p. 51.

R. W. Preisendorfer, J. Marine Res. 18, 1 (1959).

R. W. Preisendorfer, in Monograph No. 10—Symposium on Radiant Energy in the Sea, edited by N. Jerlov (I.U.G.G. Publ. Off., 39 ter, Rue Gay-Lussac, Paris, 1960), p. 11.

J. E. Tyler and R. W. Preisendorfer, The Sea (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1962), Vol. I, p. 446.

Richardson, W. H.

J. E. Tyler, W. H. Richardson, and R. W. Holmes, J. Geophys. Res. 64, 667 (1959).

Smith, R. C.

J. E. Tyler and R. C. Smith, Measurements of Spectral Irradiance Underwater (Gordon and Breach, New York, 1970).

J. E. Tyler and R. C. Smith, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1390 (1966).

Sullivan, S. A.

S. A. Sullivan, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 962 (1963).

Timofeyeva, V. A.

V. A. Timofeyeva, Doklady Akad. Sci. USSR, Geophys. 76, 677 (1951).

V. A. Timofeyeva, Moscow Hydrophys. Inst. Trans. 3, 35 (1953). Translated by Translation Div., Foreign Technol. Div., WP-AFB, Ohio (Natl. Tech. Information Service, AD-695946).

Tyler, J. E.

J. E. Tyler, W. H. Richardson, and R. W. Holmes, J. Geophys. Res. 64, 667 (1959).

J. E. Tyler and R. C. Smith, Measurements of Spectral Irradiance Underwater (Gordon and Breach, New York, 1970).

J. E. Tyler and R. W. Preisendorfer, The Sea (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1962), Vol. I, p. 446.

J. E. Tyler and R. C. Smith, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1390 (1966).

J. E. Tyler, Univ. Calif. Bull. Scripps Inst. Oceanog. 7, 363 (1960), see figure on p. 388.

J. E. Tyler, in Radiative Energy Transfer (Pergamon, New York, 1968), p. 340.

J. E. Tyler, J. Marine Res. 21, 102 (1963).

J. E. Tyler, J. Marine Res. 16, 96 (1958).

Other

R. W. Preisendorfer, in Monograph No. 10—Symposium on Radiant Energy in the Sea, edited by N. Jerlov (I.U.G.G. Publ. Off., 39 ter, Rue Gay-Lussac, Paris, 1960), p. 11.

R. W. Preisendorfer, in Physical Aspects of Light in the Sea, edited by J. E. Tyler (University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, 1964), p. 51.

J. E. Tyler, in Radiative Energy Transfer (Pergamon, New York, 1968), p. 340.

J. E. Tyler and R. W. Preisendorfer, The Sea (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1962), Vol. I, p. 446.

J. E. Tyler, J. Marine Res. 21, 102 (1963).

By brighter (or darker) we mean that the radiance distribution is distorted in this manner relative to its asymptotic distribution.

J. E. Tyler, J. Marine Res. 16, 96 (1958).

J. E. Tyler, Univ. Calif. Bull. Scripps Inst. Oceanog. 7, 363 (1960), see figure on p. 388.

V. A. Timofeyeva, Doklady Akad. Sci. USSR, Geophys. 76, 677 (1951).

V. A. Timofeyeva, Moscow Hydrophys. Inst. Trans. 3, 35 (1953). Translated by Translation Div., Foreign Technol. Div., WP-AFB, Ohio (Natl. Tech. Information Service, AD-695946).

N. G. Jerlov and M. Fukuda, Tellus 12, 348 (1960).

N. G. Jerlov and K. Nygård, Medd. Fran Oceanografiska Inst. I Goteborg, Ser. B, 8, No. 11, 25 (1961).

A. Morel, Cahiers Oceanog. 20, 291 (1968).

R. W. Preisendorfer, J. Marine Res. 18, 1 (1959).

Morel (in Electromagnetics of the Sea, AGARD Conf. Proc. No. 77 AGARD-CP-77-70, AD-716-305, 1970; footnote p. 30–3) has reported an error in computing the values of the scattering coefficients given in Ref. 12, viz., "Une erreur numédrique s'est glisée dans le calcul présenté Ref. 19 (Ref. 12): la valeur de l'intégrale normalisée n'est pas 22.5 mais (π×22.5); cette omission se répercute sur toutes les valeurs numériques présentées ensuite; un rectificatif sera prochainement donné."

E. O. Hulburt, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 35, 698 (1945.)

S. A. Sullivan, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 962 (1963).

G. L. Clarke and H. R. James, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 29, 43 (1939).

H. R. James and E. A. Birge, Trans. Wisc. Acad. Sci. 31 (1938) (see Tables I and II).

T. J. Petzold and R. W. Austin, Scripps Inst. Oceanog. Ref. 6809 (1968) (Natd. Tech. Information Service, AD 669232). Also available from authors (Visibility Lab., Scripps Inst. Oceanog., P.O. Box 109, La Jolla, Calif. 92037).

J. E. Tyler, W. H. Richardson, and R. W. Holmes, J. Geophys. Res. 64, 667 (1959).

J. E. Tyler and R. C. Smith, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1390 (1966).

J. E. Tyler and R. C. Smith, Measurements of Spectral Irradiance Underwater (Gordon and Breach, New York, 1970).

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