Abstract

A quantitative method for reconstruction and superresolution of red-blood-cell image holograms (interferograms) is described, with resolution improvement to 4% of the wavelength; the approach is based on the principles of coherent physical optics and is automated in the form of computer programs. The red-blood-cell phase information is reconstructed from the hologram; then the phase-distribution resolution is improved using symmetry, surface-continuous differentiability, and space-limited conditions.

© 1971 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 3rd ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1965), p. 418.
  2. Y. C. Fung, Federation Am. Soc. Exptl. Biol. 25, 1761 (1966).
  3. Y. C. Fung and P. Tong, Biophys. J. 8, 175 (1968).
  4. Y. C. Fung, in Biomedical Sciences Instrumentation, Vol. 4, edited by R. D. Allison (Plenum, New York, 1968), p. 310.
  5. F. Walter, Blut Z. Blutforsch. 9, 297 (1963).
  6. O. Bryngdahl and A. W. Lohmann, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 141 (1968).
  7. E. N. Leith and J. Upatnieks, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 1123 (1962).
  8. E. N. Leith and J. Upatnieks, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 1295 (1964).
  9. E. N. Leith and J. Upatnieks, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 1377 (1963).
  10. J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw—Hill, New York, 1968).
  11. L. C. Martin, The Theory of the Microscope (American Elsevier, New York, 1966).
  12. E. Wolf, Opt. Commun. 1, 153 (1969); J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 18 (1970).
  13. W. H. Carter, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 306 (1970).
  14. G. Toraldo di Francia, Nuovo Cimento Suppl. 9, 426 (1952).
  15. C. W. McCutchen, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 1190 (1967).
  16. E. A. Evans, Opt. Commun. 2, 317 (1970).
  17. J. L. Harris, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 931 (1964).
  18. C. W. Barnes, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 575 (1966).
  19. B. R. Frieden, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 1013 (1967).
  20. A. Papoulis, Systems and Transforms with Applications in Optics (McGraw—Hill, New York, 1968).
  21. I. H. Barkdoll and B. L. McGlamery, in Proceedings of the 23rd National Conference of the Association of Computing Machinery (Brandon/Systems Press, Princeton, N. J., 1968).
  22. J. W. Cooley and J. W. Tukey, Math. Comp. 19, 297 (1965).
  23. A. Papoulis, The Fourier Integral and Its Applications (McGraw—Hill, New York, 1962).
  24. D. L. Marquardt, J. Soc. Indust. Appl. Math. 2, 431 (1963).
  25. R. Barer and S. Joseph, Quart. J. Microscop. Sci. 95, 399 (1954); 96, 1 (1955).

Barer, R.

R. Barer and S. Joseph, Quart. J. Microscop. Sci. 95, 399 (1954); 96, 1 (1955).

Barkdoll, I. H.

I. H. Barkdoll and B. L. McGlamery, in Proceedings of the 23rd National Conference of the Association of Computing Machinery (Brandon/Systems Press, Princeton, N. J., 1968).

Barnes, C. W.

C. W. Barnes, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 575 (1966).

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 3rd ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1965), p. 418.

Bryngdahl, O.

O. Bryngdahl and A. W. Lohmann, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 141 (1968).

Carter, W. H.

W. H. Carter, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 306 (1970).

Cooley, J. W.

J. W. Cooley and J. W. Tukey, Math. Comp. 19, 297 (1965).

di Francia, G. Toraldo

G. Toraldo di Francia, Nuovo Cimento Suppl. 9, 426 (1952).

Evans, E. A.

E. A. Evans, Opt. Commun. 2, 317 (1970).

Frieden, B. R.

B. R. Frieden, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 1013 (1967).

Fung, Y. C.

Y. C. Fung, Federation Am. Soc. Exptl. Biol. 25, 1761 (1966).

Y. C. Fung, in Biomedical Sciences Instrumentation, Vol. 4, edited by R. D. Allison (Plenum, New York, 1968), p. 310.

Y. C. Fung and P. Tong, Biophys. J. 8, 175 (1968).

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw—Hill, New York, 1968).

Harris, J. L.

J. L. Harris, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 931 (1964).

Joseph, S.

R. Barer and S. Joseph, Quart. J. Microscop. Sci. 95, 399 (1954); 96, 1 (1955).

Leith, E. N.

E. N. Leith and J. Upatnieks, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 1295 (1964).

E. N. Leith and J. Upatnieks, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 1123 (1962).

E. N. Leith and J. Upatnieks, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 1377 (1963).

Lohmann, A. W.

O. Bryngdahl and A. W. Lohmann, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 141 (1968).

Marquardt, D. L.

D. L. Marquardt, J. Soc. Indust. Appl. Math. 2, 431 (1963).

Martin, L. C.

L. C. Martin, The Theory of the Microscope (American Elsevier, New York, 1966).

McCutchen, C. W.

C. W. McCutchen, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 1190 (1967).

McGlamery, B. L.

I. H. Barkdoll and B. L. McGlamery, in Proceedings of the 23rd National Conference of the Association of Computing Machinery (Brandon/Systems Press, Princeton, N. J., 1968).

Papoulis, A.

A. Papoulis, The Fourier Integral and Its Applications (McGraw—Hill, New York, 1962).

A. Papoulis, Systems and Transforms with Applications in Optics (McGraw—Hill, New York, 1968).

Tong, P.

Y. C. Fung and P. Tong, Biophys. J. 8, 175 (1968).

Tukey, J. W.

J. W. Cooley and J. W. Tukey, Math. Comp. 19, 297 (1965).

Upatnieks, J.

E. N. Leith and J. Upatnieks, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 1295 (1964).

E. N. Leith and J. Upatnieks, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 1123 (1962).

E. N. Leith and J. Upatnieks, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 1377 (1963).

Walter, F.

F. Walter, Blut Z. Blutforsch. 9, 297 (1963).

Wolf, E.

E. Wolf, Opt. Commun. 1, 153 (1969); J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 18 (1970).

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 3rd ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1965), p. 418.

Other (25)

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 3rd ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1965), p. 418.

Y. C. Fung, Federation Am. Soc. Exptl. Biol. 25, 1761 (1966).

Y. C. Fung and P. Tong, Biophys. J. 8, 175 (1968).

Y. C. Fung, in Biomedical Sciences Instrumentation, Vol. 4, edited by R. D. Allison (Plenum, New York, 1968), p. 310.

F. Walter, Blut Z. Blutforsch. 9, 297 (1963).

O. Bryngdahl and A. W. Lohmann, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 141 (1968).

E. N. Leith and J. Upatnieks, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 1123 (1962).

E. N. Leith and J. Upatnieks, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 1295 (1964).

E. N. Leith and J. Upatnieks, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 1377 (1963).

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw—Hill, New York, 1968).

L. C. Martin, The Theory of the Microscope (American Elsevier, New York, 1966).

E. Wolf, Opt. Commun. 1, 153 (1969); J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 18 (1970).

W. H. Carter, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 306 (1970).

G. Toraldo di Francia, Nuovo Cimento Suppl. 9, 426 (1952).

C. W. McCutchen, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 1190 (1967).

E. A. Evans, Opt. Commun. 2, 317 (1970).

J. L. Harris, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 931 (1964).

C. W. Barnes, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 575 (1966).

B. R. Frieden, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 1013 (1967).

A. Papoulis, Systems and Transforms with Applications in Optics (McGraw—Hill, New York, 1968).

I. H. Barkdoll and B. L. McGlamery, in Proceedings of the 23rd National Conference of the Association of Computing Machinery (Brandon/Systems Press, Princeton, N. J., 1968).

J. W. Cooley and J. W. Tukey, Math. Comp. 19, 297 (1965).

A. Papoulis, The Fourier Integral and Its Applications (McGraw—Hill, New York, 1962).

D. L. Marquardt, J. Soc. Indust. Appl. Math. 2, 431 (1963).

R. Barer and S. Joseph, Quart. J. Microscop. Sci. 95, 399 (1954); 96, 1 (1955).

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