Abstract

Defects in ellipsometer elements are treated in first order in a general formalism that expresses the null conditions of an ellipsometer or simpler system as a series of simultaneous linear equations. The solution of these equations is used to develop experimental procedures for the detection and measurement of these defect parameters, and to determine the effect of these parameters on ellipsometrically determined quantities. Defects that can be detected in first order include leakage and scattering in the polarizing prisms and scattering and strain birefringence in the compensator. Defects that can be detected and measured in first order include birefringence in the polarizing prisms and associated modulation cells, optical activity in the compensator, cell-window birefringence, and sample-surface quality. The experimental procedures also determine the absolute reference-azimuth angles of the polarizer and analyzer prisms and the compensator. Experimental results illustrating various aspects of the theory are presented.

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  1. A. B. Winterbottom, J. Sci. Instr. 14, 203 (1937).
  2. F. L. McCrackin, E. Passaglia, R. R. Stromberg, and H. L. Steinberg, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std. (U.S.) A67, 363 (1963).
  3. R. J. Archer and C. V. Shank, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 191 (1967).
  4. T. Yolken, R. Waxler, and J. Kruger, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 283 (1967).
  5. D. A. Holmes and D. L. Feucht, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 466 (1967).
  6. W. G. Oldham, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 617 (1967).
  7. P. H. Smith, Surface Sci. 16, 34 (1969).
  8. H. G. Jerrard, Surface Sci. 16, 67 (1969).
  9. F. Lukes, Surface Sci. 16, 74 (1969).
  10. D. G. Schueler, Surface Sci. 16, 104 (1969).
  11. C. E. Moeller and D. R. Grieser, Appl. Opt. 8, 206 (1969).
  12. M. Ghezzo, Brit. J. Appl. Phys. (J. Phys. D.) 2, 1483 (1969).
  13. F. L. McCrackin, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 57 (1970).
  14. W. R. Hunter, D. H. Eaton, and C. T. Sah, Surface Sci. 20, 355 (1970).
  15. See, for example, C. A. Fenstermaker and F. L. McCrackin, Surface Sci. 16, 85 (1969); G. Bootsma and F. Meyer, Surface Sci. 14, 52 (1969); D. W. Berreman, Phys. Rev. 163, 855 (1967); B1, 381 (1970).
  16. H. G. Jerrard, Surface Sci. 16, 137 (1969).
  17. W. A. Shurcliff, Polarized Light (Harvard U.P., Cambridge, Mass., 1962).
  18. R. H. Muller, Surface Sci. 16, 14 (1969).
  19. J. F. Nye, Physical Properties of Crystals (Oxford U.P., Oxford, 1957), p. 260 ff.
  20. G. Szivessy and C. Munster, Ann. Physik. Ser. 5, 20, 703 (1934); C. Munster and G. Szivessy, Phys. Z. 36, 101 (1936).
  21. G. Bruhat and P. Grivet, J. Phys. Radium, Ser. 7, 6, 12 (1935).
  22. L. Bragg and G. F. Claringbull, Crystal Structure of Minerals (Cornell U.P., Ithaca, New York, 1965), p. 253.
  23. D. E. Aspnes and A. A. Studna, Appl. Opt. 10, 1024 (1971).
  24. J. A. Johnson and N. M. Bashara, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 221 (1970), and references therein.

Archer, R. J.

R. J. Archer and C. V. Shank, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 191 (1967).

Aspnes, D. E.

D. E. Aspnes and A. A. Studna, Appl. Opt. 10, 1024 (1971).

Bashara, N. M.

J. A. Johnson and N. M. Bashara, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 221 (1970), and references therein.

Bragg, L.

L. Bragg and G. F. Claringbull, Crystal Structure of Minerals (Cornell U.P., Ithaca, New York, 1965), p. 253.

Bruhat, G.

G. Bruhat and P. Grivet, J. Phys. Radium, Ser. 7, 6, 12 (1935).

Claringbull, G. F.

L. Bragg and G. F. Claringbull, Crystal Structure of Minerals (Cornell U.P., Ithaca, New York, 1965), p. 253.

Eaton, D. H.

W. R. Hunter, D. H. Eaton, and C. T. Sah, Surface Sci. 20, 355 (1970).

Fenstermaker, C. A.

See, for example, C. A. Fenstermaker and F. L. McCrackin, Surface Sci. 16, 85 (1969); G. Bootsma and F. Meyer, Surface Sci. 14, 52 (1969); D. W. Berreman, Phys. Rev. 163, 855 (1967); B1, 381 (1970).

Feucht, D. L.

D. A. Holmes and D. L. Feucht, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 466 (1967).

Ghezzo, M.

M. Ghezzo, Brit. J. Appl. Phys. (J. Phys. D.) 2, 1483 (1969).

Grieser, D. R.

C. E. Moeller and D. R. Grieser, Appl. Opt. 8, 206 (1969).

Grivet, P.

G. Bruhat and P. Grivet, J. Phys. Radium, Ser. 7, 6, 12 (1935).

Holmes, D. A.

D. A. Holmes and D. L. Feucht, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 466 (1967).

Hunter, W. R.

W. R. Hunter, D. H. Eaton, and C. T. Sah, Surface Sci. 20, 355 (1970).

Jerrard, H. G.

H. G. Jerrard, Surface Sci. 16, 137 (1969).

H. G. Jerrard, Surface Sci. 16, 67 (1969).

Johnson, J. A.

J. A. Johnson and N. M. Bashara, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 221 (1970), and references therein.

Kruger, J.

T. Yolken, R. Waxler, and J. Kruger, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 283 (1967).

Lukes, F.

F. Lukes, Surface Sci. 16, 74 (1969).

McCrackin, F. L.

F. L. McCrackin, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 57 (1970).

F. L. McCrackin, E. Passaglia, R. R. Stromberg, and H. L. Steinberg, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std. (U.S.) A67, 363 (1963).

See, for example, C. A. Fenstermaker and F. L. McCrackin, Surface Sci. 16, 85 (1969); G. Bootsma and F. Meyer, Surface Sci. 14, 52 (1969); D. W. Berreman, Phys. Rev. 163, 855 (1967); B1, 381 (1970).

Moeller, C. E.

C. E. Moeller and D. R. Grieser, Appl. Opt. 8, 206 (1969).

Muller, R. H.

R. H. Muller, Surface Sci. 16, 14 (1969).

Munster, C.

G. Szivessy and C. Munster, Ann. Physik. Ser. 5, 20, 703 (1934); C. Munster and G. Szivessy, Phys. Z. 36, 101 (1936).

Nye, J. F.

J. F. Nye, Physical Properties of Crystals (Oxford U.P., Oxford, 1957), p. 260 ff.

Oldham, W. G.

W. G. Oldham, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 617 (1967).

Passaglia, E.

F. L. McCrackin, E. Passaglia, R. R. Stromberg, and H. L. Steinberg, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std. (U.S.) A67, 363 (1963).

Sah, C. T.

W. R. Hunter, D. H. Eaton, and C. T. Sah, Surface Sci. 20, 355 (1970).

Schueler, D. G.

D. G. Schueler, Surface Sci. 16, 104 (1969).

Shank, C. V.

R. J. Archer and C. V. Shank, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 191 (1967).

Shurcliff, W. A.

W. A. Shurcliff, Polarized Light (Harvard U.P., Cambridge, Mass., 1962).

Smith, P. H.

P. H. Smith, Surface Sci. 16, 34 (1969).

Steinberg, H. L.

F. L. McCrackin, E. Passaglia, R. R. Stromberg, and H. L. Steinberg, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std. (U.S.) A67, 363 (1963).

Stromberg, R. R.

F. L. McCrackin, E. Passaglia, R. R. Stromberg, and H. L. Steinberg, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std. (U.S.) A67, 363 (1963).

Studna, A. A.

D. E. Aspnes and A. A. Studna, Appl. Opt. 10, 1024 (1971).

Szivessy, G.

G. Szivessy and C. Munster, Ann. Physik. Ser. 5, 20, 703 (1934); C. Munster and G. Szivessy, Phys. Z. 36, 101 (1936).

Waxler, R.

T. Yolken, R. Waxler, and J. Kruger, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 283 (1967).

Winterbottom, A. B.

A. B. Winterbottom, J. Sci. Instr. 14, 203 (1937).

Yolken, T.

T. Yolken, R. Waxler, and J. Kruger, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 283 (1967).

Other (24)

A. B. Winterbottom, J. Sci. Instr. 14, 203 (1937).

F. L. McCrackin, E. Passaglia, R. R. Stromberg, and H. L. Steinberg, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std. (U.S.) A67, 363 (1963).

R. J. Archer and C. V. Shank, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 191 (1967).

T. Yolken, R. Waxler, and J. Kruger, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 283 (1967).

D. A. Holmes and D. L. Feucht, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 466 (1967).

W. G. Oldham, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 617 (1967).

P. H. Smith, Surface Sci. 16, 34 (1969).

H. G. Jerrard, Surface Sci. 16, 67 (1969).

F. Lukes, Surface Sci. 16, 74 (1969).

D. G. Schueler, Surface Sci. 16, 104 (1969).

C. E. Moeller and D. R. Grieser, Appl. Opt. 8, 206 (1969).

M. Ghezzo, Brit. J. Appl. Phys. (J. Phys. D.) 2, 1483 (1969).

F. L. McCrackin, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 57 (1970).

W. R. Hunter, D. H. Eaton, and C. T. Sah, Surface Sci. 20, 355 (1970).

See, for example, C. A. Fenstermaker and F. L. McCrackin, Surface Sci. 16, 85 (1969); G. Bootsma and F. Meyer, Surface Sci. 14, 52 (1969); D. W. Berreman, Phys. Rev. 163, 855 (1967); B1, 381 (1970).

H. G. Jerrard, Surface Sci. 16, 137 (1969).

W. A. Shurcliff, Polarized Light (Harvard U.P., Cambridge, Mass., 1962).

R. H. Muller, Surface Sci. 16, 14 (1969).

J. F. Nye, Physical Properties of Crystals (Oxford U.P., Oxford, 1957), p. 260 ff.

G. Szivessy and C. Munster, Ann. Physik. Ser. 5, 20, 703 (1934); C. Munster and G. Szivessy, Phys. Z. 36, 101 (1936).

G. Bruhat and P. Grivet, J. Phys. Radium, Ser. 7, 6, 12 (1935).

L. Bragg and G. F. Claringbull, Crystal Structure of Minerals (Cornell U.P., Ithaca, New York, 1965), p. 253.

D. E. Aspnes and A. A. Studna, Appl. Opt. 10, 1024 (1971).

J. A. Johnson and N. M. Bashara, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 221 (1970), and references therein.

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