Abstract

By the use of two-color threshold technique, the critical duration was measured at 10 retinal-illuminance levels of the adapting field. The critical duration does not always decrease monotonically with increase of the adapting retinal illuminance; it sometimes decreases at first and then increases again before it finally decreases. All these results can be explained very clearly by the hypothesis that the critical duration is determined by the state of adaptation of the cone system concerned. If it is well adapted, the critical duration is short, in general. The experimentally obtained critical-duration-vs-adapting-illuminance curve is composed of component <i>t</i><sub>c</sub>-<i>E</i> curves of the underlying cone systems, the π<sub>1</sub>,π<sub>2,</sub>π<sub>4</sub>,and π<sub>5</sub>, mechanisms. The differences among these mechanisms, as to their critical-duration characteristics, were found; the first two, or blue systems, had long critical durations and less decrease with adaptation but the last two had short critical durations and considerable decrease with adaptation.

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  1. C. H. Graham and E. H. Kemp, J. Gen. Physiol. 21, 635 (1938).
  2. M. Keller, J. Exptl. Psychol. 28, 407 (1941).
  3. R. M. Herrick, J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 49, 437 (1956).
  4. W. R. Biersdorf, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 920 (1955).
  5. See, for example, W. S. Stiles, Coloq. Prob. Opt. Vision, Union Intern. Phys. Pure Appl., Madrid, 65 (1953).
  6. G. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, Color Science (Wiley, New York, 1967), p. 574.
  7. W. S. Stiles, Docum. Ophthalmol. 3, 138 (1949).
  8. M. Ikeda and R. M. Boynton, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 697 (1962).
  9. W. S. Stiles, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (U. S.) 45, 100 (1959).
  10. R. O. Rouse, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 626 (1952).
  11. G. S. Brindley, J. J. Du. Croz, and W. A. H. Rushton, J. Physiol. (London) 183, 497 (1966).
  12. G. S. Brindley, J. Physiol. (London) 124, 400 (1954).
  13. V. D. Glezer, Vision Res. 5, 497 (1965).
  14. H. G. Sperling and C. L. Jolliffe, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 191 (1965).

Biersdorf, W. R.

W. R. Biersdorf, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 920 (1955).

Boynton, R. M.

M. Ikeda and R. M. Boynton, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 697 (1962).

Brindley, G. S.

G. S. Brindley, J. Physiol. (London) 124, 400 (1954).

G. S. Brindley, J. J. Du. Croz, and W. A. H. Rushton, J. Physiol. (London) 183, 497 (1966).

Croz, J. J. Du.

G. S. Brindley, J. J. Du. Croz, and W. A. H. Rushton, J. Physiol. (London) 183, 497 (1966).

Glezer, V. D.

V. D. Glezer, Vision Res. 5, 497 (1965).

Graham, C. H.

C. H. Graham and E. H. Kemp, J. Gen. Physiol. 21, 635 (1938).

Herrick, R. M.

R. M. Herrick, J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 49, 437 (1956).

Ikeda, M.

M. Ikeda and R. M. Boynton, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 697 (1962).

Jolliffe, C. L.

H. G. Sperling and C. L. Jolliffe, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 191 (1965).

Keller, M.

M. Keller, J. Exptl. Psychol. 28, 407 (1941).

Kemp, E. H.

C. H. Graham and E. H. Kemp, J. Gen. Physiol. 21, 635 (1938).

Rouse, R. O.

R. O. Rouse, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 626 (1952).

Rushton, W. A. H.

G. S. Brindley, J. J. Du. Croz, and W. A. H. Rushton, J. Physiol. (London) 183, 497 (1966).

Sperling, H. G.

H. G. Sperling and C. L. Jolliffe, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 191 (1965).

Stiles, W. S.

See, for example, W. S. Stiles, Coloq. Prob. Opt. Vision, Union Intern. Phys. Pure Appl., Madrid, 65 (1953).

W. S. Stiles, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (U. S.) 45, 100 (1959).

W. S. Stiles, Docum. Ophthalmol. 3, 138 (1949).

G. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, Color Science (Wiley, New York, 1967), p. 574.

Wyszecki, G.

G. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, Color Science (Wiley, New York, 1967), p. 574.

Other

C. H. Graham and E. H. Kemp, J. Gen. Physiol. 21, 635 (1938).

M. Keller, J. Exptl. Psychol. 28, 407 (1941).

R. M. Herrick, J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 49, 437 (1956).

W. R. Biersdorf, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 920 (1955).

See, for example, W. S. Stiles, Coloq. Prob. Opt. Vision, Union Intern. Phys. Pure Appl., Madrid, 65 (1953).

G. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, Color Science (Wiley, New York, 1967), p. 574.

W. S. Stiles, Docum. Ophthalmol. 3, 138 (1949).

M. Ikeda and R. M. Boynton, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 697 (1962).

W. S. Stiles, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (U. S.) 45, 100 (1959).

R. O. Rouse, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 626 (1952).

G. S. Brindley, J. J. Du. Croz, and W. A. H. Rushton, J. Physiol. (London) 183, 497 (1966).

G. S. Brindley, J. Physiol. (London) 124, 400 (1954).

V. D. Glezer, Vision Res. 5, 497 (1965).

H. G. Sperling and C. L. Jolliffe, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 191 (1965).

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