A. Rose, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 196 (1948).
J. Johnson, private communication.
H. R. Blackwell, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 36, 624 (1946).
The asterisk is used to designate the convolution operation io(x,y,t)*ho(x,y,t)=∫dx′∫dy′∫dt′io(x′,y′,t′)ho[(x-x′),(y-y′),(t-t′)].
J. L. Harris, Sr., J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 569 (1966).
M. A. Bouman, J. J. Vos, and P. L. Walraven, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 121 (1963).
E. A. Trabka, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 345 (1969).
W. Feller, Probability Theory and its A pplications (Wiley, New York, 1950), p. 249.
Another approach that gives a similar final result is that of M. A. Bouman and H. A. van der Velden, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37, 908 (1947) in terms of multistage cells and omission of dark noise.
The terminology "signal density" is arbitrary and possibly confusing. The signal is related to ∫ ∫ s2(x,y)dxdy, not ∫ ∫ s2(x,y)dxdy.
A. van Meeteren and J. J. Vos, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 1538 (1969).
S. Hecht and E. U. Mintz, J. Gen. Physiol. 22, 593 (1939).
O. Schade, Sr., J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 721 (1956).
R. W. Gubisch, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 407 (1967).
G. A. Fry, in Progress in Optics VIII, edited by E. Wolf (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1970).
M. Davidson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 1300 (1968).
Because the glance time to is considerably greater than the response time of the eye, we approximate H(ω) to unity.
D. E. Mitchell, R. D. Freeman, and G. Westheimer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 246 (1967).
Ricco's law states that the threshold contrast is proportional to the inverse of the area of small targets.
A. B. Kristofferson and H. R. Blackwell, private communication.
E. S. Lamar, S. Hecht, S. Shlaer, and C. D. Hendley, S. Opt. Soc. Am. 37, 531 (1947); 38, 741 (1948).
J. L. Brown, in Vision and Visual Perception, edited by C. H. Graham (Wiley, New York, 1965), p. 39.
F. W. Campbell and D. G. Green, J. Physiol. (London) 181, 576 (1965).
A. Watanabe, T. Mori, S. Nagata, and K. Hiwatashi, Vision Res. 8, 1245 (1968).
P. Gaunt, Opt. Acta 15, 287 (1968).
C. H. Graham, in Ref. 22, p. 68.
S. Hecht, S. Ross, and C. G. Mueller, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37, 500 (1947).
J. L. Harris and S. Q. Duntley, in Performance of the Eye at Low Luminances, edited by M. A. Bouman and J. J. Vos (Excerpta Medica Foundation, Amsterdam and New York, 1966), p. 41.