Abstract

Photopic flicker data are explained in terms of a theoretical model of two retinal processes. The first is a linear diffusion process (presumably in the receptors), with a large dynamic range (~10<sup>5</sup>). The second is a nonlinear inhibiting network (neural feedback at the synapses of the plexiform layers) that adaptively controls the sensitivity and time constants of the model. The magnitude of its transfer function fits the flicker data quantitatively at all frequencies, over a wide range of adaptation levels. The corresponding small-signal impulse responses are also calculated: their latencies and leading edges (associated with receptor activity) are invariant with adaptation level; the remaining phases of these transient waveforms (associated with the graded potentials of secondary neurons) adapt strongly, in accord with current histology and micro-electrode findings.

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |

  1. D. H. Kelly, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 1665 (1969).
  2. D. H. Kelly, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 1361 (1969).
  3. H. E. Ives, J. Opt. Soc. Am. and Rev. Sci. Instr. 6, 343 (1922).
  4. F. Veringa, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 286 (1970). This and Ref. 1 cite Veringa's earlier papers.
  5. M. G. F. Fuortes and A. L. Hodgkin, J. Physiol. (London) 172, 239 (1964).
  6. D. H. Kelly, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 422 (1961).
  7. D. H. Kelly, "Visual Flicker," in Handbook of Sensory Physiology, Volume VII/4, Visual Psychophysics, edited by L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson (Springer, Heidelberg, to be published).
  8. D. H. Kelly, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 747 (1961).
  9. L. Walløe, Acta Ophthalmol. 47, 1163 (1969). See also Ref. 17.
  10. F. Ratliff, Mach Bands (Holden-Day, San Francisco, 1965), Ch. 3. See also Refs. 15–17.
  11. The theoretical illuminances used for the two middle levels are slightly different from the measured values given in Ref. 6, but they are within the probable calibration error. This adjustment changes the vertical position of two theoretical curves in Fig. 5, but it has no effect on the experimental data points. (Illuminance adjustments were not permitted with the new data of the second paper of this series, where the calibration is believed to be more accurate.)
  12. H. deLange, thesis, Technical University, Delft, 1957. See also J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 777 (1958).
  13. G. Sperling and M. M. Sondhi, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 1133 (1968).
  14. L. A. Riggs, in Vision and Visual Perception, edited by C. H. Graham (Wiley, New York, 1965), pp. 81 ff.
  15. K. T. Brown and K. Watanabe, Science 148, 1113 (1965).
  16. J. E. Dowling, Science 155, 273 (1967), reviews recent physiological evidence on the site of adaptation.
  17. J. E. Dowling and F. S. Werblin, J. Neurophysiol. 32, 315 (1969), discuss the functions of all types of retinal neurons.

Brown, K. T.

K. T. Brown and K. Watanabe, Science 148, 1113 (1965).

deLange, H.

H. deLange, thesis, Technical University, Delft, 1957. See also J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 777 (1958).

Dowling, J. E.

J. E. Dowling, Science 155, 273 (1967), reviews recent physiological evidence on the site of adaptation.

J. E. Dowling and F. S. Werblin, J. Neurophysiol. 32, 315 (1969), discuss the functions of all types of retinal neurons.

Fuortes, M. G. F.

M. G. F. Fuortes and A. L. Hodgkin, J. Physiol. (London) 172, 239 (1964).

Hodgkin, A. L.

M. G. F. Fuortes and A. L. Hodgkin, J. Physiol. (London) 172, 239 (1964).

Ives, H. E.

H. E. Ives, J. Opt. Soc. Am. and Rev. Sci. Instr. 6, 343 (1922).

Kelly, D. H.

D. H. Kelly, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 1665 (1969).

D. H. Kelly, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 1361 (1969).

D. H. Kelly, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 422 (1961).

D. H. Kelly, "Visual Flicker," in Handbook of Sensory Physiology, Volume VII/4, Visual Psychophysics, edited by L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson (Springer, Heidelberg, to be published).

D. H. Kelly, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 747 (1961).

Ratliff, F.

F. Ratliff, Mach Bands (Holden-Day, San Francisco, 1965), Ch. 3. See also Refs. 15–17.

Riggs, L. A.

L. A. Riggs, in Vision and Visual Perception, edited by C. H. Graham (Wiley, New York, 1965), pp. 81 ff.

Sondhi, M. M.

G. Sperling and M. M. Sondhi, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 1133 (1968).

Sperling, G.

G. Sperling and M. M. Sondhi, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 1133 (1968).

Veringa, F.

F. Veringa, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 286 (1970). This and Ref. 1 cite Veringa's earlier papers.

Walløe, L.

L. Walløe, Acta Ophthalmol. 47, 1163 (1969). See also Ref. 17.

Watanabe, K.

K. T. Brown and K. Watanabe, Science 148, 1113 (1965).

Werblin, F. S.

J. E. Dowling and F. S. Werblin, J. Neurophysiol. 32, 315 (1969), discuss the functions of all types of retinal neurons.

Other (17)

D. H. Kelly, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 1665 (1969).

D. H. Kelly, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 1361 (1969).

H. E. Ives, J. Opt. Soc. Am. and Rev. Sci. Instr. 6, 343 (1922).

F. Veringa, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 286 (1970). This and Ref. 1 cite Veringa's earlier papers.

M. G. F. Fuortes and A. L. Hodgkin, J. Physiol. (London) 172, 239 (1964).

D. H. Kelly, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 422 (1961).

D. H. Kelly, "Visual Flicker," in Handbook of Sensory Physiology, Volume VII/4, Visual Psychophysics, edited by L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson (Springer, Heidelberg, to be published).

D. H. Kelly, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 747 (1961).

L. Walløe, Acta Ophthalmol. 47, 1163 (1969). See also Ref. 17.

F. Ratliff, Mach Bands (Holden-Day, San Francisco, 1965), Ch. 3. See also Refs. 15–17.

The theoretical illuminances used for the two middle levels are slightly different from the measured values given in Ref. 6, but they are within the probable calibration error. This adjustment changes the vertical position of two theoretical curves in Fig. 5, but it has no effect on the experimental data points. (Illuminance adjustments were not permitted with the new data of the second paper of this series, where the calibration is believed to be more accurate.)

H. deLange, thesis, Technical University, Delft, 1957. See also J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 777 (1958).

G. Sperling and M. M. Sondhi, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 1133 (1968).

L. A. Riggs, in Vision and Visual Perception, edited by C. H. Graham (Wiley, New York, 1965), pp. 81 ff.

K. T. Brown and K. Watanabe, Science 148, 1113 (1965).

J. E. Dowling, Science 155, 273 (1967), reviews recent physiological evidence on the site of adaptation.

J. E. Dowling and F. S. Werblin, J. Neurophysiol. 32, 315 (1969), discuss the functions of all types of retinal neurons.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.