Abstract

A semiempirical theory is developed which relates the refractive-index-structure parameter <i>C<sub>n</sub></i><sup>2</sup> in the lowest few tens of meters to the vertical gradients of wind speed and temperature and to a stability parameter. This provides an indirect method of determining <i>C<sub>n</sub></i><sup>2</sup>, or its temperature counterpart <i>C<sub>T</sub></i><sup>2</sup>, and the method is successfully applied to recent data which include directly measured <i>C<sub>T</sub></i><sup>2</sup> values. The height dependence of the structure parameter is also determined, and the predicted <i>z</i><sup>-4/3</sup> profile under unstable conditions agrees with recent data in the free atmosphere at heights up to 500 m.

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  1. V. L. TatarskiWave Propagation in a Turbulent Medium (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1961), Ch. 10.
  2. H. A. Panofsky, J. Geophys. Res. 73, 6047 (1968).
  3. A. M. Obukhov, Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Ser. Geograf. Geofiz. 13, 58 (1949).
  4. J. O. Hinze, Turbulence (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1959), p. 189.
  5. The constant 0.25 stands for 2(2π)-1Γ(5/3) sin(π/3). Note that we use a range of 0 to ∞ for κ1, whereas a - ∞ to + ∞ range is used on p. 25 of Ref. 1.
  6. J. L. Lumley, Phys. Fluids 8, 1056 (1965).
  7. S. Corrsin, J. Appl. Phys. 22, 469 (1951).
  8. H. A. Panofsky, Radio Sci. 4, 1143 (1969).
  9. J. C. Wyngaard and O. R. Coté, J. Atmos. Sci. 28, 190 (1971).
  10. J. A. Businger, J. C. Wyngaard, Y. Izumi, and E. F. Bradley, J. Atmos. Sci. 28, 181 (1971).
  11. J. L. Lumley and H. A. Panofsky, The Structure of Atmospheric Turbulence (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1964).
  12. J. C. Wyngaard, O. R. Coté, and Y. Izumi, J. Atmos. Sci. 28, 1171 (1971).
  13. L. R. Tsvang, Radio Sci. 4, 1175 (1969).
  14. E. W. Peterson, Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc. 95, 561 (1969)

Bradley, E. F.

J. A. Businger, J. C. Wyngaard, Y. Izumi, and E. F. Bradley, J. Atmos. Sci. 28, 181 (1971).

Businger, J. A.

J. A. Businger, J. C. Wyngaard, Y. Izumi, and E. F. Bradley, J. Atmos. Sci. 28, 181 (1971).

Corrsin, S.

S. Corrsin, J. Appl. Phys. 22, 469 (1951).

Coté, O. R.

J. C. Wyngaard, O. R. Coté, and Y. Izumi, J. Atmos. Sci. 28, 1171 (1971).

J. C. Wyngaard and O. R. Coté, J. Atmos. Sci. 28, 190 (1971).

Hinze, J. O.

J. O. Hinze, Turbulence (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1959), p. 189.

Izumi, Y.

J. C. Wyngaard, O. R. Coté, and Y. Izumi, J. Atmos. Sci. 28, 1171 (1971).

J. A. Businger, J. C. Wyngaard, Y. Izumi, and E. F. Bradley, J. Atmos. Sci. 28, 181 (1971).

Lumley, J. L.

J. L. Lumley, Phys. Fluids 8, 1056 (1965).

J. L. Lumley and H. A. Panofsky, The Structure of Atmospheric Turbulence (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1964).

Obukhov, A. M.

A. M. Obukhov, Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Ser. Geograf. Geofiz. 13, 58 (1949).

Panofsky, H. A.

J. L. Lumley and H. A. Panofsky, The Structure of Atmospheric Turbulence (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1964).

H. A. Panofsky, J. Geophys. Res. 73, 6047 (1968).

H. A. Panofsky, Radio Sci. 4, 1143 (1969).

Peterson, E. W.

E. W. Peterson, Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc. 95, 561 (1969)

Tatarski, V. L.

V. L. TatarskiWave Propagation in a Turbulent Medium (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1961), Ch. 10.

Tsvang, L. R.

L. R. Tsvang, Radio Sci. 4, 1175 (1969).

Wyngaard, J. C.

J. A. Businger, J. C. Wyngaard, Y. Izumi, and E. F. Bradley, J. Atmos. Sci. 28, 181 (1971).

J. C. Wyngaard, O. R. Coté, and Y. Izumi, J. Atmos. Sci. 28, 1171 (1971).

J. C. Wyngaard and O. R. Coté, J. Atmos. Sci. 28, 190 (1971).

Other

V. L. TatarskiWave Propagation in a Turbulent Medium (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1961), Ch. 10.

H. A. Panofsky, J. Geophys. Res. 73, 6047 (1968).

A. M. Obukhov, Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Ser. Geograf. Geofiz. 13, 58 (1949).

J. O. Hinze, Turbulence (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1959), p. 189.

The constant 0.25 stands for 2(2π)-1Γ(5/3) sin(π/3). Note that we use a range of 0 to ∞ for κ1, whereas a - ∞ to + ∞ range is used on p. 25 of Ref. 1.

J. L. Lumley, Phys. Fluids 8, 1056 (1965).

S. Corrsin, J. Appl. Phys. 22, 469 (1951).

H. A. Panofsky, Radio Sci. 4, 1143 (1969).

J. C. Wyngaard and O. R. Coté, J. Atmos. Sci. 28, 190 (1971).

J. A. Businger, J. C. Wyngaard, Y. Izumi, and E. F. Bradley, J. Atmos. Sci. 28, 181 (1971).

J. L. Lumley and H. A. Panofsky, The Structure of Atmospheric Turbulence (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1964).

J. C. Wyngaard, O. R. Coté, and Y. Izumi, J. Atmos. Sci. 28, 1171 (1971).

L. R. Tsvang, Radio Sci. 4, 1175 (1969).

E. W. Peterson, Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc. 95, 561 (1969)

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