Abstract

The spectrum of gold from several different light sources has been investigated. Precision measurements have yielded new data on wavelengths and energy levels in Au i, Au ii, and Au iii. The spectrum from a high-intensity hollow-cathode lamp with a secondary discharge from an extra pair of electrodes to reduce line broadening and self-reversal was studied with a high-resolution Czerny–Turner spectrograph from 2600 to 9600 Å. This study yielded an accurate line list along with information on the hyperfine structure of levels in Au i and the first observations of hyperfine splittings in Au ii. Few lines from levels with high orbital angular momentum were seen, providing information on the type of excitation in this kind of lamp. Autoionization in gold is reported for the first time, and broad lines 1–5 cm−1 wide were classified as arising from two autoionizing levels in Au i. The vacuum-ultraviolet spectrum from a condensed spark was studied, and new lines were found in Au ii and Au iii

© 1971 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. W. C. Martin and J. Sugar, private communication, 1970.
  2. J. R. Platt and R. A. Sawyer, Phys. Rev. 60, 866 (1941).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. B. Green and H. N. Maxwell, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 98 (1955).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. M. Elliott and J. Wulff, Phys. Rev. 55, 170 (1939).
    [CrossRef]
  5. W. V. Siemans, Ann. Physik 13, 158 (1953).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. Bucka and J. Ney, Z. Physik 194, 208 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  7. E. Recknagel, Z. Physik 159, 19 (1960).
    [CrossRef]
  8. W. J. Childs and L. S. Goodman, Phys. Rev. 141, 176 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. G. Blackman, D. A. Landman, and A. Lurio, Phys. Rev. 161, 60 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. V. Sullivan and A. Walsh, Spectrochim. Acta 21, 72 (1965).
  11. D. K. Davies, J. Appl. Phys. 38, 4713 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. Reader, Ph.D. thesis, University of California, Berkeley, 1962.
  13. S. P. Davis and J. G. Phillips, The Red System of the CN Molecule (Univ. California Press, Berkeley, 1963).
  14. F. P. J. Valero, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 484 (1968); J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 1048 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Trans. Intern. Astron. Union 10, 229 (1959).
  16. L. L. Ames and R. F. Barrow, Faraday Soc. Trans. 63, 39 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. C. McLennan and A. B. McLay, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) 134A, 35 (1931).
  18. S. Mrozowski, Phys. Rev. 61, 605 (1942).
    [CrossRef]
  19. A. G. Shenstone, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London A235, 195 (1936).
  20. L. Iglesias, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std. (U.S.) 64A, 481 (1960); J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std. (U.S.) 70A, 465 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  21. Y. Shadmi, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std. (U.S.) 69A, 511 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  22. H. Mendlowitz, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std. (U.S.) 71A, 149 (1967).
    [CrossRef]

1968 (1)

1967 (4)

A. G. Blackman, D. A. Landman, and A. Lurio, Phys. Rev. 161, 60 (1967).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Davies, J. Appl. Phys. 38, 4713 (1967).
[CrossRef]

L. L. Ames and R. F. Barrow, Faraday Soc. Trans. 63, 39 (1967).
[CrossRef]

H. Mendlowitz, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std. (U.S.) 71A, 149 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1966 (2)

W. J. Childs and L. S. Goodman, Phys. Rev. 141, 176 (1966).
[CrossRef]

H. Bucka and J. Ney, Z. Physik 194, 208 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1965 (2)

J. V. Sullivan and A. Walsh, Spectrochim. Acta 21, 72 (1965).

Y. Shadmi, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std. (U.S.) 69A, 511 (1965).
[CrossRef]

1960 (2)

E. Recknagel, Z. Physik 159, 19 (1960).
[CrossRef]

L. Iglesias, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std. (U.S.) 64A, 481 (1960); J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std. (U.S.) 70A, 465 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1959 (1)

Trans. Intern. Astron. Union 10, 229 (1959).

1955 (1)

1953 (1)

W. V. Siemans, Ann. Physik 13, 158 (1953).
[CrossRef]

1942 (1)

S. Mrozowski, Phys. Rev. 61, 605 (1942).
[CrossRef]

1941 (1)

J. R. Platt and R. A. Sawyer, Phys. Rev. 60, 866 (1941).
[CrossRef]

1939 (1)

R. M. Elliott and J. Wulff, Phys. Rev. 55, 170 (1939).
[CrossRef]

1936 (1)

A. G. Shenstone, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London A235, 195 (1936).

1931 (1)

J. C. McLennan and A. B. McLay, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) 134A, 35 (1931).

Ames, L. L.

L. L. Ames and R. F. Barrow, Faraday Soc. Trans. 63, 39 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Barrow, R. F.

L. L. Ames and R. F. Barrow, Faraday Soc. Trans. 63, 39 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Blackman, A. G.

A. G. Blackman, D. A. Landman, and A. Lurio, Phys. Rev. 161, 60 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Bucka, H.

H. Bucka and J. Ney, Z. Physik 194, 208 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Childs, W. J.

W. J. Childs and L. S. Goodman, Phys. Rev. 141, 176 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Davies, D. K.

D. K. Davies, J. Appl. Phys. 38, 4713 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Davis, S. P.

S. P. Davis and J. G. Phillips, The Red System of the CN Molecule (Univ. California Press, Berkeley, 1963).

Elliott, R. M.

R. M. Elliott and J. Wulff, Phys. Rev. 55, 170 (1939).
[CrossRef]

Goodman, L. S.

W. J. Childs and L. S. Goodman, Phys. Rev. 141, 176 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Green, J. B.

Iglesias, L.

L. Iglesias, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std. (U.S.) 64A, 481 (1960); J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std. (U.S.) 70A, 465 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Landman, D. A.

A. G. Blackman, D. A. Landman, and A. Lurio, Phys. Rev. 161, 60 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Lurio, A.

A. G. Blackman, D. A. Landman, and A. Lurio, Phys. Rev. 161, 60 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Martin, W. C.

W. C. Martin and J. Sugar, private communication, 1970.

Maxwell, H. N.

McLay, A. B.

J. C. McLennan and A. B. McLay, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) 134A, 35 (1931).

McLennan, J. C.

J. C. McLennan and A. B. McLay, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) 134A, 35 (1931).

Mendlowitz, H.

H. Mendlowitz, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std. (U.S.) 71A, 149 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Mrozowski, S.

S. Mrozowski, Phys. Rev. 61, 605 (1942).
[CrossRef]

Ney, J.

H. Bucka and J. Ney, Z. Physik 194, 208 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, J. G.

S. P. Davis and J. G. Phillips, The Red System of the CN Molecule (Univ. California Press, Berkeley, 1963).

Platt, J. R.

J. R. Platt and R. A. Sawyer, Phys. Rev. 60, 866 (1941).
[CrossRef]

Reader, J.

J. Reader, Ph.D. thesis, University of California, Berkeley, 1962.

Recknagel, E.

E. Recknagel, Z. Physik 159, 19 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Sawyer, R. A.

J. R. Platt and R. A. Sawyer, Phys. Rev. 60, 866 (1941).
[CrossRef]

Shadmi, Y.

Y. Shadmi, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std. (U.S.) 69A, 511 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Shenstone, A. G.

A. G. Shenstone, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London A235, 195 (1936).

Siemans, W. V.

W. V. Siemans, Ann. Physik 13, 158 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Sugar, J.

W. C. Martin and J. Sugar, private communication, 1970.

Sullivan, J. V.

J. V. Sullivan and A. Walsh, Spectrochim. Acta 21, 72 (1965).

Valero, F. P. J.

Walsh, A.

J. V. Sullivan and A. Walsh, Spectrochim. Acta 21, 72 (1965).

Wulff, J.

R. M. Elliott and J. Wulff, Phys. Rev. 55, 170 (1939).
[CrossRef]

Ann. Physik (1)

W. V. Siemans, Ann. Physik 13, 158 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Faraday Soc. Trans. (1)

L. L. Ames and R. F. Barrow, Faraday Soc. Trans. 63, 39 (1967).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

D. K. Davies, J. Appl. Phys. 38, 4713 (1967).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std. (U.S.) (3)

L. Iglesias, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std. (U.S.) 64A, 481 (1960); J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std. (U.S.) 70A, 465 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shadmi, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std. (U.S.) 69A, 511 (1965).
[CrossRef]

H. Mendlowitz, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std. (U.S.) 71A, 149 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London (1)

A. G. Shenstone, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London A235, 195 (1936).

Phys. Rev. (5)

S. Mrozowski, Phys. Rev. 61, 605 (1942).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Elliott and J. Wulff, Phys. Rev. 55, 170 (1939).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Childs and L. S. Goodman, Phys. Rev. 141, 176 (1966).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Blackman, D. A. Landman, and A. Lurio, Phys. Rev. 161, 60 (1967).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Platt and R. A. Sawyer, Phys. Rev. 60, 866 (1941).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) (1)

J. C. McLennan and A. B. McLay, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) 134A, 35 (1931).

Spectrochim. Acta (1)

J. V. Sullivan and A. Walsh, Spectrochim. Acta 21, 72 (1965).

Trans. Intern. Astron. Union (1)

Trans. Intern. Astron. Union 10, 229 (1959).

Z. Physik (2)

H. Bucka and J. Ney, Z. Physik 194, 208 (1966).
[CrossRef]

E. Recknagel, Z. Physik 159, 19 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

J. Reader, Ph.D. thesis, University of California, Berkeley, 1962.

S. P. Davis and J. G. Phillips, The Red System of the CN Molecule (Univ. California Press, Berkeley, 1963).

W. C. Martin and J. Sugar, private communication, 1970.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Tables (7)

Tables Icon

Table I Energy levels of Au i. PS indicates doubtful or incorrect levels of Platt and Sawyer2; a denotes previously observed hyperfine structure, b new levels, c new autoionized levels. All level and width units are cm−1.

Tables Icon

Table II Classified lines of Au i. Wavelength units are angstrom, wavenumber units cm−1. W stands for width in cm−1, H indicates hyperfine structure, and X indicates forbidden transitions.

Tables Icon

Table III Unclassified autoionized lines. Wavelength units are angstroms, wavenumber units cm−1.

Tables Icon

Table IV Energy levels of Au ii. Level units are cm−1.

Tables Icon

Table V Classified lines of Au ii. Wavelength units are angstrom (in vacuum for those shorter than 2000 Å), wavenumber units in cm−1. W stands for width in cm−1, H indicates hyperfine structure.

Tables Icon

Table VI Classified lines of Au III. Wavelength units are angstroms in vacuum, wavenumber units in cm−1.

Tables Icon

Table VII Energy levels of Au iii. Level units are cm−1.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

T n = R / ( n + δ n ) 2 ,
δ n = 4.612 388 - 1.694 27 × 10 - 6 T n - 1.739 × 10 - 11 T n 2 ,
E I . P . = 74 407.70 cm - 1 .
δ n = 4.614 010 - 1.367 98 × 10 - 6 T n - 3.5473 × 10 - 11 T n 2 ,
E I . P . = 74 408.61 cm - 1 .
E I . P . = 74 408.6 ± 1.0 cm - 1 .