Abstract

Nd i and Nd ii spectra emitted by an electrodeless tube have been observed between 2450 and 40 500 Å. By means of 25 000 wavelengths measured with an automatic comparator and of the Zeeman patterns of the strongest lines, about 1500 energy levels have been found. Their interpretation was carried out with the use of isotopic-shift data and empirical parametric calculations. The present state of the classification is described. The main features of the 15 known configurations and some results of theoretical calculations are given.

© 1971 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. W. E. Albertson, G. R. Harrison, and J. R. McNally, Phys. Rev. 61, 167 (1942).
    [Crossref]
  2. Ph. Schuurmans, Physica 11, 419 (1946).
    [Crossref]
  3. P. F. A. Klinkenberg, thesis, Amsterdam, 1955.
  4. G. E. M. A. Hassan, thesis, Amsterdam, 1962.
  5. See for instance the footnote on p. 42 of B. G. Wybourne, Spectroscopic Properties of Rare Earths (Wiley–Interscience, New York, 1965).
  6. P. R. Rao and G. Gluck, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A 277, 540 (1964).
    [Crossref]
  7. F. S. Tomkins and M. Fred, Appl. Opt. 2, 715 (1963).
    [Crossref]
  8. J. Vergès, Spectrochim. Acta 24B, 177 (1969).
  9. A. Girard, Appl. Opt. 2, 79 (1963).
    [Crossref]
  10. R. Hoekstra, thesis, Amsterdam, 1969.
  11. J. Blaise, J. Chevillard, J. Vergès, and J. F. Wyart, Spectrochim. Acta 25B, 333 (1970).
  12. C. Morillon, Spectrochim. Acta B,  25B, 513 (1970).
    [Crossref]
  13. J. F. Wyart, J. Phys. 31, 559 (1970).
    [Crossref]
  14. J. F. Wyart, Thèse de Doctorat de 3ème Cycle, Orsay, 1968.
  15. J. Reader and J. Sugar, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1189 (1966).
    [Crossref]
  16. P. F. A. Klinkenberg, Physica 11, 327 (1945).
    [Crossref]
  17. G. Nöldeke and A. Steudel, Z. Physik 137, 632 (1954).
    [Crossref]
  18. J. Blaise, thèse, Paris, 1957.
  19. Y. P. Dontsov, V. A. Morosov, and A. R. Striganov, Opt. Spectrosk. 8, 6 (1960).
  20. P. R. Rao and G. Gluck, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A 277, 540 (1964).
    [Crossref]
  21. S. Gerstenkorn, J. M. Helbert, and R. Chabbal, Compt. Rend. 261, 1232 (1964).

1970 (3)

J. Blaise, J. Chevillard, J. Vergès, and J. F. Wyart, Spectrochim. Acta 25B, 333 (1970).

C. Morillon, Spectrochim. Acta B,  25B, 513 (1970).
[Crossref]

J. F. Wyart, J. Phys. 31, 559 (1970).
[Crossref]

1969 (1)

J. Vergès, Spectrochim. Acta 24B, 177 (1969).

1966 (1)

1964 (3)

P. R. Rao and G. Gluck, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A 277, 540 (1964).
[Crossref]

P. R. Rao and G. Gluck, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A 277, 540 (1964).
[Crossref]

S. Gerstenkorn, J. M. Helbert, and R. Chabbal, Compt. Rend. 261, 1232 (1964).

1963 (2)

1960 (1)

Y. P. Dontsov, V. A. Morosov, and A. R. Striganov, Opt. Spectrosk. 8, 6 (1960).

1954 (1)

G. Nöldeke and A. Steudel, Z. Physik 137, 632 (1954).
[Crossref]

1946 (1)

Ph. Schuurmans, Physica 11, 419 (1946).
[Crossref]

1945 (1)

P. F. A. Klinkenberg, Physica 11, 327 (1945).
[Crossref]

1942 (1)

W. E. Albertson, G. R. Harrison, and J. R. McNally, Phys. Rev. 61, 167 (1942).
[Crossref]

Albertson, W. E.

W. E. Albertson, G. R. Harrison, and J. R. McNally, Phys. Rev. 61, 167 (1942).
[Crossref]

Blaise, J.

J. Blaise, J. Chevillard, J. Vergès, and J. F. Wyart, Spectrochim. Acta 25B, 333 (1970).

J. Blaise, thèse, Paris, 1957.

Chabbal, R.

S. Gerstenkorn, J. M. Helbert, and R. Chabbal, Compt. Rend. 261, 1232 (1964).

Chevillard, J.

J. Blaise, J. Chevillard, J. Vergès, and J. F. Wyart, Spectrochim. Acta 25B, 333 (1970).

Dontsov, Y. P.

Y. P. Dontsov, V. A. Morosov, and A. R. Striganov, Opt. Spectrosk. 8, 6 (1960).

Fred, M.

Gerstenkorn, S.

S. Gerstenkorn, J. M. Helbert, and R. Chabbal, Compt. Rend. 261, 1232 (1964).

Girard, A.

Gluck, G.

P. R. Rao and G. Gluck, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A 277, 540 (1964).
[Crossref]

P. R. Rao and G. Gluck, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A 277, 540 (1964).
[Crossref]

Harrison, G. R.

W. E. Albertson, G. R. Harrison, and J. R. McNally, Phys. Rev. 61, 167 (1942).
[Crossref]

Hassan, G. E. M. A.

G. E. M. A. Hassan, thesis, Amsterdam, 1962.

Helbert, J. M.

S. Gerstenkorn, J. M. Helbert, and R. Chabbal, Compt. Rend. 261, 1232 (1964).

Hoekstra, R.

R. Hoekstra, thesis, Amsterdam, 1969.

Klinkenberg, P. F. A.

P. F. A. Klinkenberg, Physica 11, 327 (1945).
[Crossref]

P. F. A. Klinkenberg, thesis, Amsterdam, 1955.

McNally, J. R.

W. E. Albertson, G. R. Harrison, and J. R. McNally, Phys. Rev. 61, 167 (1942).
[Crossref]

Morillon, C.

C. Morillon, Spectrochim. Acta B,  25B, 513 (1970).
[Crossref]

Morosov, V. A.

Y. P. Dontsov, V. A. Morosov, and A. R. Striganov, Opt. Spectrosk. 8, 6 (1960).

Nöldeke, G.

G. Nöldeke and A. Steudel, Z. Physik 137, 632 (1954).
[Crossref]

Rao, P. R.

P. R. Rao and G. Gluck, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A 277, 540 (1964).
[Crossref]

P. R. Rao and G. Gluck, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A 277, 540 (1964).
[Crossref]

Reader, J.

Schuurmans, Ph.

Ph. Schuurmans, Physica 11, 419 (1946).
[Crossref]

Steudel, A.

G. Nöldeke and A. Steudel, Z. Physik 137, 632 (1954).
[Crossref]

Striganov, A. R.

Y. P. Dontsov, V. A. Morosov, and A. R. Striganov, Opt. Spectrosk. 8, 6 (1960).

Sugar, J.

Tomkins, F. S.

Vergès, J.

J. Blaise, J. Chevillard, J. Vergès, and J. F. Wyart, Spectrochim. Acta 25B, 333 (1970).

J. Vergès, Spectrochim. Acta 24B, 177 (1969).

Wyart, J. F.

J. Blaise, J. Chevillard, J. Vergès, and J. F. Wyart, Spectrochim. Acta 25B, 333 (1970).

J. F. Wyart, J. Phys. 31, 559 (1970).
[Crossref]

J. F. Wyart, Thèse de Doctorat de 3ème Cycle, Orsay, 1968.

Wybourne, B. G.

See for instance the footnote on p. 42 of B. G. Wybourne, Spectroscopic Properties of Rare Earths (Wiley–Interscience, New York, 1965).

Appl. Opt. (2)

Compt. Rend. (1)

S. Gerstenkorn, J. M. Helbert, and R. Chabbal, Compt. Rend. 261, 1232 (1964).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Phys. (1)

J. F. Wyart, J. Phys. 31, 559 (1970).
[Crossref]

Opt. Spectrosk. (1)

Y. P. Dontsov, V. A. Morosov, and A. R. Striganov, Opt. Spectrosk. 8, 6 (1960).

Phys. Rev. (1)

W. E. Albertson, G. R. Harrison, and J. R. McNally, Phys. Rev. 61, 167 (1942).
[Crossref]

Physica (2)

Ph. Schuurmans, Physica 11, 419 (1946).
[Crossref]

P. F. A. Klinkenberg, Physica 11, 327 (1945).
[Crossref]

Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A (2)

P. R. Rao and G. Gluck, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A 277, 540 (1964).
[Crossref]

P. R. Rao and G. Gluck, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A 277, 540 (1964).
[Crossref]

Spectrochim. Acta (2)

J. Blaise, J. Chevillard, J. Vergès, and J. F. Wyart, Spectrochim. Acta 25B, 333 (1970).

J. Vergès, Spectrochim. Acta 24B, 177 (1969).

Spectrochim. Acta B (1)

C. Morillon, Spectrochim. Acta B,  25B, 513 (1970).
[Crossref]

Z. Physik (1)

G. Nöldeke and A. Steudel, Z. Physik 137, 632 (1954).
[Crossref]

Other (6)

J. Blaise, thèse, Paris, 1957.

J. F. Wyart, Thèse de Doctorat de 3ème Cycle, Orsay, 1968.

R. Hoekstra, thesis, Amsterdam, 1969.

P. F. A. Klinkenberg, thesis, Amsterdam, 1955.

G. E. M. A. Hassan, thesis, Amsterdam, 1962.

See for instance the footnote on p. 42 of B. G. Wybourne, Spectroscopic Properties of Rare Earths (Wiley–Interscience, New York, 1965).

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The successive steps in the classification of the Nd i spectrum (1) discovery of highly excited odd levels, most of these belonging to f4sp and f4dp, (2) discovery of the 4f45d6s configuration, (3) building of the system f3ds2+f3d2sf3dsp+f3d2p, (4) connection between the two systems by means of infrared transitions, (5) discovery of the 4f46s7s configuration, and (6) discovery of the 4f45d2 configuration.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The successive steps in the classification of the Nd ii spectrum (1a) discovery of highly excited odd levels and of some f4d levels in the visible and ultraviolet, (1b) discovery of low-lying odd levels in the infrared, (2) building of the system f4(5F, 5S, 3K)sf4(5F, 5S, 3K)p, (3) connection between the two systems by means of ultraviolet transitions, and (4) discovery of highly excited even levels and of the lowest odd term f3d2 6M°.

Tables (5)

Tables Icon

Table I Low-lying levels of the known configurations in Nd i and Nd ii.

Tables Icon

Table II Fitted-parameter values and associated standard errors for some configurations of Nd i and Nd ii.

Tables Icon

Table III Calculated level values and compositions for levels of the 4f4(5I)5d 6s subconfiguration of Nd i. Squared eigenvectors are preceded by the sign of the component.

Tables Icon

Table IV Calculated level values and compositions for levels of the 4f3 5d 6s2 configuration of Nd i. Squared eigenvectors are preceded by the sign of the component.

Tables Icon

Table V Calculated level values and main component for experimental levels of 4f3 5d2 6s of Nd i.

Equations (3)

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F 5 1 : 10 205 cm - 1 S 5 2 : 11 739 cm - 1 K 3 6 : 13 617 cm - 1 ( H 3 4 + G 5 4 ) : 14 872 cm - 1 .
F 4 3 / 2 : 10 196 cm - 1 H 2 3 / 2 : 10 270 cm - 1 S 4 3 / 2 : 11 846 cm - 1 G 4 5 / 2 : 15 327 cm - 1 .
X + 12 015.50 J = 1 g = 1.395 X + 12 418.02 J = 2 g = 1.39 X + 20 675.395 J = 2 g = 0.795 X + 21 131.36 J = 2 g = 0.875.