Although sensations of lightness show a strong correlation with reflectances in most real-life situations, there are many important departures from this strong correlation. The color-contrast experiments of Chevreul2 and Mach bands3 are examples of such departures. In addition, in complex images, there are small but systematic changes of lightness when the over-all level of illumination changes (Jameson and Hurvich4; Bartleson and Breneman5). And, of course, any general theory must, as well, explain the simple situations in which surround comprises the entire environment (Hess and Pretori6; Wallach7; Stevens and Galanter8).
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We avoided the use of a pattern of squares because previous experience had taught us the hazard of the superposition of afterimages as the eye moves10. Our completed display uses rectangles in an array the format of which reminded us of a painting by Piet Mondrian in the Tate Gallery in London. Thus we call our display the Mondrian.
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Figure 6 was made as a transparency so that the photograph would be the best possible reproduction of the original experiment. The range of luminances of the original display was about 500 to 1. The reproduction must have a range of transmittances that approaches that range of luminances. In addition, the photograph must not alter the relative luminances of any areas by non-linearities of the film response. It is very difficult to obtain both these properties in reflection prints, whereas the greater intrinsic dynamic range of a transparency allowed us to satisfy both conditions. In addition, the optical densities of each area across the horizontal midline of Fig. 6 are the same as those in Fig. 4.
We are deeply indebted to L. Feranni and S. Kagan for developing the electronic representation of the system for finding the sequential product. The work on this display helped us to clarify our analysis.
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