Abstract

The aspect of atmospheric turbulence of interest to optical-propagation studies is the variation of refractive index. We demonstrate the application of high-speed temperature sensors to the direct measurement of this variation at optically important scale sizes, as small as a few millimeters. The thermometers, used in pairs with spacings ranging from 3 mm to 1 m, disclose that the turbulence near the ground frequently differs substantially from the Kolmogoroff model, and that the temperature difference does not follow the gaussian probability-distribution function. A model of the turbulent atmosphere containing sharply bounded regions with stronger than average turbulence agrees well with our observations. We also demonstrate the use of a single sensor mounted on an airplane to observe refractive-index variations at heights up to 3 km.

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  1. G. R. Ochs, ESSA Tech. Rept. IER 47-ITSA 46 (U. S. Govt. Printing Office, Washington, D. C., 1967).
  2. A. W. Straiton, A. P. Deam, and J. L. Dodd, J. Geophys. Res. 72, 4051 (1967).
  3. V. M. Koprov and L. R. Tsvang, Bull. (Izv.) Acad. Sci. USSR, Atm. Oceanic Phys. 2, 1142 (1966).
  4. J. W. Strohbehn, private communication (1969).
  5. C. E. Coulman, Solar Phys. 7, 122 (1969).
  6. R. E. Hufnagel, in Restoration of Atmospherically Degraded Images (Natl. Academy of Sciences, Washington, D. C., 1966), Vol. 2, p. 14.

Coulman, C. E.

C. E. Coulman, Solar Phys. 7, 122 (1969).

Deam, A. P.

A. W. Straiton, A. P. Deam, and J. L. Dodd, J. Geophys. Res. 72, 4051 (1967).

Dodd, J. L.

A. W. Straiton, A. P. Deam, and J. L. Dodd, J. Geophys. Res. 72, 4051 (1967).

Hufnagel, R. E.

R. E. Hufnagel, in Restoration of Atmospherically Degraded Images (Natl. Academy of Sciences, Washington, D. C., 1966), Vol. 2, p. 14.

Koprov, V. M.

V. M. Koprov and L. R. Tsvang, Bull. (Izv.) Acad. Sci. USSR, Atm. Oceanic Phys. 2, 1142 (1966).

Ochs, G. R.

G. R. Ochs, ESSA Tech. Rept. IER 47-ITSA 46 (U. S. Govt. Printing Office, Washington, D. C., 1967).

Straiton, A. W.

A. W. Straiton, A. P. Deam, and J. L. Dodd, J. Geophys. Res. 72, 4051 (1967).

Strohbehn, J. W.

J. W. Strohbehn, private communication (1969).

Tsvang, L. R.

V. M. Koprov and L. R. Tsvang, Bull. (Izv.) Acad. Sci. USSR, Atm. Oceanic Phys. 2, 1142 (1966).

Other

G. R. Ochs, ESSA Tech. Rept. IER 47-ITSA 46 (U. S. Govt. Printing Office, Washington, D. C., 1967).

A. W. Straiton, A. P. Deam, and J. L. Dodd, J. Geophys. Res. 72, 4051 (1967).

V. M. Koprov and L. R. Tsvang, Bull. (Izv.) Acad. Sci. USSR, Atm. Oceanic Phys. 2, 1142 (1966).

J. W. Strohbehn, private communication (1969).

C. E. Coulman, Solar Phys. 7, 122 (1969).

R. E. Hufnagel, in Restoration of Atmospherically Degraded Images (Natl. Academy of Sciences, Washington, D. C., 1966), Vol. 2, p. 14.

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