Abstract

The role of classical optics in the process of photoemission from thin films is analyzed. The generation of excited electrons throughout the film is assumed to be proportional to the divergence of the Poynting vector in the film. The film and substrate are allowed uniaxial optical anisotropy, with the optic axis normal to the plane of the film. The main results of the analysis, expressions for the reflectance, transmittance, and divergence of the Poynting vector in the film, are valid for all angles of incidence and arbitrary values of the dielectric functions of the nonabsorbing initial medium, film, and substrate. Expressions for the quantum yield are obtained with the aid of a simple function that describes the diffusion and escape of the excited electrons. Some applications to photoemission from metals in the vacuum-ultraviolet region are discussed.

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  1. T. C. Fry, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 22, 307 (1932).
  2. H. E. Ives, Phys. Rev. 38, 1209 (1931).
  3. Reference 1, p. 324. V
  4. W. E. Spicer, Phys. Rev. 112, 114 (1958).
  5. W. E. Spicer and F. Wooten, Proc. IEEE 51, 1119 (1963).
  6. C. N. Berglund and W. E. Spicer, Phys. Rev. 136A, 1030 (1964); Phys. Rev. 136A, 1044 (1964).
  7. W. N. Hansen, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 380 (1968).
  8. F. Stern, in Solid State Physics, Vol. 15, F. Seitz and D. Turnbull, Eds. (Academic Press Inc., New York, 1963), pp. 299–408.
  9. E. E. Bell, in Handbuch der Physik, Vol. 25, S. Flügge, Ed. (Springer–Verlag, New York, 1967), Pt. 2a, pp. 1–58.
  10. L. P. Mosteller, Jr. and F. Wooten, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 511 (1968).
  11. A. R. Melnyk and M. J. Harrison, Phys. Rev. Letters 21, 85 (1968).
  12. O. S. Heavens, Optical Properties of Thin Solid Films (Dover Publications, Inc., New York, 1965), p. 59.
  13. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 2nd ed. (Pergamon Press, Inc., New York, 1964), p. 614.
  14. Reference 12, p. 63.
  15. M. A. Novice and J. Vine, Appl. Opt. 6, 1171 (1967).
  16. Optical Properties and Electronic Structure of Metals and Alloys, F. Abelès, Ed. (North-Holland Publishing Co., Amsterdam, 1966; Wiley—Interscience, Inc., N.Y., distr.)
  17. W. Steinmann, Phys. Status Solidi 28, 437 (1968).
  18. R. P. Madden, L. R. Canfield, and G. Hass, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 620 (1963).
  19. Reference 13, p. 277.
  20. F. A. Jenkins and H. E. White, Fundamentals of Optics, 3rd ed. (McGraw–Hill Book Co., New York, 1957), p. 527.
  21. W. R. Hunter, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 15 (1964).
  22. J. J. Quinn, Phys. Rev. 126, 1453 (1962).
  23. C. R. Crowell and S. M. Sze, in Physics of Thin Films, Vol. 4, G. Hass and R. E. Thun, Eds. (Academic Press Inc., New York, 1967), pp. 326– 371.
  24. J. A. R. Samson, Techniques of Vacuum Ultraviolet Spectroscopy (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1967), p. 238.

Bell, E. E.

E. E. Bell, in Handbuch der Physik, Vol. 25, S. Flügge, Ed. (Springer–Verlag, New York, 1967), Pt. 2a, pp. 1–58.

Berglund, C. N.

C. N. Berglund and W. E. Spicer, Phys. Rev. 136A, 1030 (1964); Phys. Rev. 136A, 1044 (1964).

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 2nd ed. (Pergamon Press, Inc., New York, 1964), p. 614.

Canfield, L. R.

R. P. Madden, L. R. Canfield, and G. Hass, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 620 (1963).

Crowell, C. R.

C. R. Crowell and S. M. Sze, in Physics of Thin Films, Vol. 4, G. Hass and R. E. Thun, Eds. (Academic Press Inc., New York, 1967), pp. 326– 371.

Fry, T. C.

T. C. Fry, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 22, 307 (1932).

Hansen, W. N.

W. N. Hansen, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 380 (1968).

Harrison, M. J.

A. R. Melnyk and M. J. Harrison, Phys. Rev. Letters 21, 85 (1968).

Hass, G.

R. P. Madden, L. R. Canfield, and G. Hass, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 620 (1963).

Heavens, O. S.

O. S. Heavens, Optical Properties of Thin Solid Films (Dover Publications, Inc., New York, 1965), p. 59.

Hunter, W. R.

W. R. Hunter, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 15 (1964).

Ives, H. E.

H. E. Ives, Phys. Rev. 38, 1209 (1931).

Jenkins, F. A.

F. A. Jenkins and H. E. White, Fundamentals of Optics, 3rd ed. (McGraw–Hill Book Co., New York, 1957), p. 527.

Madden, R. P.

R. P. Madden, L. R. Canfield, and G. Hass, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 620 (1963).

Melnyk, A. R.

A. R. Melnyk and M. J. Harrison, Phys. Rev. Letters 21, 85 (1968).

Mosteller, Jr., L. P.

L. P. Mosteller, Jr. and F. Wooten, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 511 (1968).

Novice, M. A.

M. A. Novice and J. Vine, Appl. Opt. 6, 1171 (1967).

Quinn, J. J.

J. J. Quinn, Phys. Rev. 126, 1453 (1962).

Samson, J. A. R.

J. A. R. Samson, Techniques of Vacuum Ultraviolet Spectroscopy (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1967), p. 238.

Spicer, W. E.

W. E. Spicer, Phys. Rev. 112, 114 (1958).

W. E. Spicer and F. Wooten, Proc. IEEE 51, 1119 (1963).

C. N. Berglund and W. E. Spicer, Phys. Rev. 136A, 1030 (1964); Phys. Rev. 136A, 1044 (1964).

Steinmann, W.

W. Steinmann, Phys. Status Solidi 28, 437 (1968).

Stern, F.

F. Stern, in Solid State Physics, Vol. 15, F. Seitz and D. Turnbull, Eds. (Academic Press Inc., New York, 1963), pp. 299–408.

Sze, S. M.

C. R. Crowell and S. M. Sze, in Physics of Thin Films, Vol. 4, G. Hass and R. E. Thun, Eds. (Academic Press Inc., New York, 1967), pp. 326– 371.

Vine, J.

M. A. Novice and J. Vine, Appl. Opt. 6, 1171 (1967).

White, H. E.

F. A. Jenkins and H. E. White, Fundamentals of Optics, 3rd ed. (McGraw–Hill Book Co., New York, 1957), p. 527.

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 2nd ed. (Pergamon Press, Inc., New York, 1964), p. 614.

Wooten, F.

L. P. Mosteller, Jr. and F. Wooten, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 511 (1968).

W. E. Spicer and F. Wooten, Proc. IEEE 51, 1119 (1963).

Other (24)

T. C. Fry, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 22, 307 (1932).

H. E. Ives, Phys. Rev. 38, 1209 (1931).

Reference 1, p. 324. V

W. E. Spicer, Phys. Rev. 112, 114 (1958).

W. E. Spicer and F. Wooten, Proc. IEEE 51, 1119 (1963).

C. N. Berglund and W. E. Spicer, Phys. Rev. 136A, 1030 (1964); Phys. Rev. 136A, 1044 (1964).

W. N. Hansen, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 380 (1968).

F. Stern, in Solid State Physics, Vol. 15, F. Seitz and D. Turnbull, Eds. (Academic Press Inc., New York, 1963), pp. 299–408.

E. E. Bell, in Handbuch der Physik, Vol. 25, S. Flügge, Ed. (Springer–Verlag, New York, 1967), Pt. 2a, pp. 1–58.

L. P. Mosteller, Jr. and F. Wooten, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 511 (1968).

A. R. Melnyk and M. J. Harrison, Phys. Rev. Letters 21, 85 (1968).

O. S. Heavens, Optical Properties of Thin Solid Films (Dover Publications, Inc., New York, 1965), p. 59.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 2nd ed. (Pergamon Press, Inc., New York, 1964), p. 614.

Reference 12, p. 63.

M. A. Novice and J. Vine, Appl. Opt. 6, 1171 (1967).

Optical Properties and Electronic Structure of Metals and Alloys, F. Abelès, Ed. (North-Holland Publishing Co., Amsterdam, 1966; Wiley—Interscience, Inc., N.Y., distr.)

W. Steinmann, Phys. Status Solidi 28, 437 (1968).

R. P. Madden, L. R. Canfield, and G. Hass, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 620 (1963).

Reference 13, p. 277.

F. A. Jenkins and H. E. White, Fundamentals of Optics, 3rd ed. (McGraw–Hill Book Co., New York, 1957), p. 527.

W. R. Hunter, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 15 (1964).

J. J. Quinn, Phys. Rev. 126, 1453 (1962).

C. R. Crowell and S. M. Sze, in Physics of Thin Films, Vol. 4, G. Hass and R. E. Thun, Eds. (Academic Press Inc., New York, 1967), pp. 326– 371.

J. A. R. Samson, Techniques of Vacuum Ultraviolet Spectroscopy (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1967), p. 238.

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