Abstract

X-ray film response in the 9–70-keV range was measured for exposures as short as 3 nsec corresponding to dose rates as high as 1017 photons/cm2/sec. Thermoluminescent dosimeters were used as calibration standards to normalize the film results. The ratio of film response at high dose rate divided by film response at low dose rate was used as a measure of reciprocity failure. No definitive reciprocity failure could be observed within the experimental error of 10%–15%, but there appears to be a slight trend towards reciprocity failure at lower energies.

© 1970 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. Hercher and B. Ruff, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 103 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Ehrlich and W. L. McLaughlin, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 797 (1956).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. W. Gurney and N. F. Mott, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A164, 151 (1938).
  4. C. E. K. Mees and T. H. James, Theory of the Photographic Process, 3rd ed. (The Macmillan Co., New York, 1966).
  5. F. A. Hamm and J. J. Comer, J. Appl. Phys. 24, 1495 (1953).
    [CrossRef]
  6. E. Tochilin and N. Goldstein, Health Phys. 12, 1705 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Obtained from Edgerton, Germeshausen and Grier, Inc., Goleta, Calif. For CaF2; Mn, See R. J. Ginther and R. D. Kirk, J. Electrochem. Soc. 104, 365 (1957).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. D. Evans, in Radiation Dosimetry, F. H. Attix and W. C. Roesch, Eds. (Academic Press Inc., New York, 1968), Vol. 1, Ch. 3.
  9. C. M. Dozier, J. V. Gilfrich, and L. S. Birks, Appl. Opt. 6, 2136 (1967).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1967 (2)

1966 (1)

E. Tochilin and N. Goldstein, Health Phys. 12, 1705 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1957 (1)

Obtained from Edgerton, Germeshausen and Grier, Inc., Goleta, Calif. For CaF2; Mn, See R. J. Ginther and R. D. Kirk, J. Electrochem. Soc. 104, 365 (1957).
[CrossRef]

1956 (1)

1953 (1)

F. A. Hamm and J. J. Comer, J. Appl. Phys. 24, 1495 (1953).
[CrossRef]

1938 (1)

R. W. Gurney and N. F. Mott, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A164, 151 (1938).

Birks, L. S.

Comer, J. J.

F. A. Hamm and J. J. Comer, J. Appl. Phys. 24, 1495 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Dozier, C. M.

Ehrlich, M.

Evans, R. D.

R. D. Evans, in Radiation Dosimetry, F. H. Attix and W. C. Roesch, Eds. (Academic Press Inc., New York, 1968), Vol. 1, Ch. 3.

Gilfrich, J. V.

Ginther, R. J.

Obtained from Edgerton, Germeshausen and Grier, Inc., Goleta, Calif. For CaF2; Mn, See R. J. Ginther and R. D. Kirk, J. Electrochem. Soc. 104, 365 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Goldstein, N.

E. Tochilin and N. Goldstein, Health Phys. 12, 1705 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Gurney, R. W.

R. W. Gurney and N. F. Mott, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A164, 151 (1938).

Hamm, F. A.

F. A. Hamm and J. J. Comer, J. Appl. Phys. 24, 1495 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Hercher, M.

James, T. H.

C. E. K. Mees and T. H. James, Theory of the Photographic Process, 3rd ed. (The Macmillan Co., New York, 1966).

Kirk, R. D.

Obtained from Edgerton, Germeshausen and Grier, Inc., Goleta, Calif. For CaF2; Mn, See R. J. Ginther and R. D. Kirk, J. Electrochem. Soc. 104, 365 (1957).
[CrossRef]

McLaughlin, W. L.

Mees, C. E. K.

C. E. K. Mees and T. H. James, Theory of the Photographic Process, 3rd ed. (The Macmillan Co., New York, 1966).

Mott, N. F.

R. W. Gurney and N. F. Mott, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A164, 151 (1938).

Ruff, B.

Tochilin, E.

E. Tochilin and N. Goldstein, Health Phys. 12, 1705 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Health Phys. (1)

E. Tochilin and N. Goldstein, Health Phys. 12, 1705 (1966).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

F. A. Hamm and J. J. Comer, J. Appl. Phys. 24, 1495 (1953).
[CrossRef]

J. Electrochem. Soc. (1)

Obtained from Edgerton, Germeshausen and Grier, Inc., Goleta, Calif. For CaF2; Mn, See R. J. Ginther and R. D. Kirk, J. Electrochem. Soc. 104, 365 (1957).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) (1)

R. W. Gurney and N. F. Mott, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A164, 151 (1938).

Other (2)

C. E. K. Mees and T. H. James, Theory of the Photographic Process, 3rd ed. (The Macmillan Co., New York, 1966).

R. D. Evans, in Radiation Dosimetry, F. H. Attix and W. C. Roesch, Eds. (Academic Press Inc., New York, 1968), Vol. 1, Ch. 3.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Geometry for balanced-filter experiments using characteristic fluorescence: x-ray source A, fluorescer B, balanced filters C, thermoluminescent dosimeters D, film E, and lead shielding F.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Details of fluorescer A, pass filter B, stop filter C, TLD’s D in plastic holder E, and film F. Full film exposure was obtained at G between the TLD shadows H. See also Fig. 4.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic of the energy bandpass allowed by the balanced filters. E1 is the absorption-edge energy for the stop filter and E2 is the absorption-edge energy for the pass filter.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Typical film exposures behind balanced filters and TLD’s. On the left is the film for a Zn fluorescer and on the right is a Br (from KBr) fluorescer. The figure is a reversal print; it has the same appearance as the original x-ray films. The pass filter is on top, in each case.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Geometry for crystal-spectrometer measurements using characteristic fluorescence: x-ray tube A, fluorescer B, slit system C, diffracting crystal D, TLD E, and film F.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Typical film exposures with the crystal spectrometer, showing the position of TLD’s to read the diffracted line (left) or the background (right). The figure is a reversal print; it has the same appearance as the original x-ray films.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Normalized film response as a function of dose rate in photons/cm2/sec.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Normalized film response at high dose rates as a function of photon energy. The error bars represent one standard deviation about the observed mean. The mean of 0.98 (neglecting bromine) is indicated by the solid line.

Tables (2)

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Table I X-ray tube characteristics.

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Table II Monochromatic x-ray sources.

Equations (1)

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( F . R . ) h / ( F . R . ) l .