Abstract

Subjects were presented with two gratings with different spatial frequencies and they were asked to discriminate one from the other. Their ability to discriminate between the gratings was found to depend primarily on the ratio of their spatial frequencies over a wide range of absolute frequency. At high spatial frequencies, discrimination deteriorates when differences of subjective contrast are eliminated.

© 1970 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. F. W. Campbell, G. F. Cooper, and Christina Enroth-Cugell, J. Physiol. (London) 203, 223 (1969).
  2. C. Blakemore and F. W. Campbell, J. Physiol. (London) 203, 237 (1969).
  3. C. Blakemore and P. Sutton, Science 166, 245 (1969).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. J. G. Robson and F. W. Campbell in Symposium on the Physiological Basis for Form Discrimination (Hunter Laboratory of Psychology, Brown University, Providence, R. I., 1964), p. 44.
  5. F. W. Campbell and J. G. Robson, J. Physiol. (London) 197, 551 (1968).
  6. C. H. Graham in Vision and Visual Perception, C. H. Graham, Ed. (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1965), Ch. 15.
  7. A. Pantle and R. Sekuler, Science 162, 1146 (1968).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. F. W. Campbell, G. F. Cooper, J. G. Robson, and M. B. Sachs, J. Physiol. (London) 204, 120P (1969).
  9. F. W. Campbell and D. G. Green, J. Physiol. (London) 181, 576 (1965).
  10. F. W. Campbell, R. H. S. Carpenter, and J. Z. Levinson, J. Physiol. (London) 204, 283 (1969).
  11. Because, in our experiments, the subject was about equally often correct on the two types of trial, the normal deviates have a particular significance in the theory of signal detectability [See D. M. Green and J. A. Swets, Signal Detection Theory and Psychophysics (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1966).] Let us suppose that the internal effect of the frequency of a grating can be represented by a random variable. Let us further suppose that, for a given frequency, the random variable is distributed normally, with only the mean of the distribution depending upon the frequency of the grating. Upon these assumptions, the normal deviate of correct responses is just half the value of the mean difference between the distributions generated on high- and low-frequency trials in units of their standard deviation.
  12. G. B. Henning, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 39, 336 (1966).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. G. B. Henning and S. L. Grosberg, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 44, 1386 (1968).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. G. Fechner, Elements of Psychophysics, Trans. H. E. Adler (H. Holt, New York, 1966), p. 176.
  15. B. Bourdon, La perception visuelle de l’espace (Schleicher Frères, Paris, 1902), p. 116.

1969 (5)

F. W. Campbell, G. F. Cooper, and Christina Enroth-Cugell, J. Physiol. (London) 203, 223 (1969).

C. Blakemore and F. W. Campbell, J. Physiol. (London) 203, 237 (1969).

C. Blakemore and P. Sutton, Science 166, 245 (1969).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. W. Campbell, G. F. Cooper, J. G. Robson, and M. B. Sachs, J. Physiol. (London) 204, 120P (1969).

F. W. Campbell, R. H. S. Carpenter, and J. Z. Levinson, J. Physiol. (London) 204, 283 (1969).

1968 (3)

F. W. Campbell and J. G. Robson, J. Physiol. (London) 197, 551 (1968).

A. Pantle and R. Sekuler, Science 162, 1146 (1968).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. B. Henning and S. L. Grosberg, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 44, 1386 (1968).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1966 (1)

G. B. Henning, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 39, 336 (1966).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1965 (1)

F. W. Campbell and D. G. Green, J. Physiol. (London) 181, 576 (1965).

Blakemore, C.

C. Blakemore and F. W. Campbell, J. Physiol. (London) 203, 237 (1969).

C. Blakemore and P. Sutton, Science 166, 245 (1969).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bourdon, B.

B. Bourdon, La perception visuelle de l’espace (Schleicher Frères, Paris, 1902), p. 116.

Campbell, F. W.

F. W. Campbell, R. H. S. Carpenter, and J. Z. Levinson, J. Physiol. (London) 204, 283 (1969).

C. Blakemore and F. W. Campbell, J. Physiol. (London) 203, 237 (1969).

F. W. Campbell, G. F. Cooper, and Christina Enroth-Cugell, J. Physiol. (London) 203, 223 (1969).

F. W. Campbell, G. F. Cooper, J. G. Robson, and M. B. Sachs, J. Physiol. (London) 204, 120P (1969).

F. W. Campbell and J. G. Robson, J. Physiol. (London) 197, 551 (1968).

F. W. Campbell and D. G. Green, J. Physiol. (London) 181, 576 (1965).

J. G. Robson and F. W. Campbell in Symposium on the Physiological Basis for Form Discrimination (Hunter Laboratory of Psychology, Brown University, Providence, R. I., 1964), p. 44.

Carpenter, R. H. S.

F. W. Campbell, R. H. S. Carpenter, and J. Z. Levinson, J. Physiol. (London) 204, 283 (1969).

Cooper, G. F.

F. W. Campbell, G. F. Cooper, and Christina Enroth-Cugell, J. Physiol. (London) 203, 223 (1969).

F. W. Campbell, G. F. Cooper, J. G. Robson, and M. B. Sachs, J. Physiol. (London) 204, 120P (1969).

Enroth-Cugell, Christina

F. W. Campbell, G. F. Cooper, and Christina Enroth-Cugell, J. Physiol. (London) 203, 223 (1969).

Fechner, G.

G. Fechner, Elements of Psychophysics, Trans. H. E. Adler (H. Holt, New York, 1966), p. 176.

Graham, C. H.

C. H. Graham in Vision and Visual Perception, C. H. Graham, Ed. (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1965), Ch. 15.

Green, D. G.

F. W. Campbell and D. G. Green, J. Physiol. (London) 181, 576 (1965).

Green, D. M.

Because, in our experiments, the subject was about equally often correct on the two types of trial, the normal deviates have a particular significance in the theory of signal detectability [See D. M. Green and J. A. Swets, Signal Detection Theory and Psychophysics (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1966).] Let us suppose that the internal effect of the frequency of a grating can be represented by a random variable. Let us further suppose that, for a given frequency, the random variable is distributed normally, with only the mean of the distribution depending upon the frequency of the grating. Upon these assumptions, the normal deviate of correct responses is just half the value of the mean difference between the distributions generated on high- and low-frequency trials in units of their standard deviation.

Grosberg, S. L.

G. B. Henning and S. L. Grosberg, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 44, 1386 (1968).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Henning, G. B.

G. B. Henning and S. L. Grosberg, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 44, 1386 (1968).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. B. Henning, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 39, 336 (1966).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Levinson, J. Z.

F. W. Campbell, R. H. S. Carpenter, and J. Z. Levinson, J. Physiol. (London) 204, 283 (1969).

Pantle, A.

A. Pantle and R. Sekuler, Science 162, 1146 (1968).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Robson, J. G.

F. W. Campbell, G. F. Cooper, J. G. Robson, and M. B. Sachs, J. Physiol. (London) 204, 120P (1969).

F. W. Campbell and J. G. Robson, J. Physiol. (London) 197, 551 (1968).

J. G. Robson and F. W. Campbell in Symposium on the Physiological Basis for Form Discrimination (Hunter Laboratory of Psychology, Brown University, Providence, R. I., 1964), p. 44.

Sachs, M. B.

F. W. Campbell, G. F. Cooper, J. G. Robson, and M. B. Sachs, J. Physiol. (London) 204, 120P (1969).

Sekuler, R.

A. Pantle and R. Sekuler, Science 162, 1146 (1968).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sutton, P.

C. Blakemore and P. Sutton, Science 166, 245 (1969).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Swets, J. A.

Because, in our experiments, the subject was about equally often correct on the two types of trial, the normal deviates have a particular significance in the theory of signal detectability [See D. M. Green and J. A. Swets, Signal Detection Theory and Psychophysics (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1966).] Let us suppose that the internal effect of the frequency of a grating can be represented by a random variable. Let us further suppose that, for a given frequency, the random variable is distributed normally, with only the mean of the distribution depending upon the frequency of the grating. Upon these assumptions, the normal deviate of correct responses is just half the value of the mean difference between the distributions generated on high- and low-frequency trials in units of their standard deviation.

J. Acoust. Soc. Am. (2)

G. B. Henning, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 39, 336 (1966).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. B. Henning and S. L. Grosberg, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 44, 1386 (1968).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Physiol. (London) (6)

F. W. Campbell and J. G. Robson, J. Physiol. (London) 197, 551 (1968).

F. W. Campbell, G. F. Cooper, and Christina Enroth-Cugell, J. Physiol. (London) 203, 223 (1969).

C. Blakemore and F. W. Campbell, J. Physiol. (London) 203, 237 (1969).

F. W. Campbell, G. F. Cooper, J. G. Robson, and M. B. Sachs, J. Physiol. (London) 204, 120P (1969).

F. W. Campbell and D. G. Green, J. Physiol. (London) 181, 576 (1965).

F. W. Campbell, R. H. S. Carpenter, and J. Z. Levinson, J. Physiol. (London) 204, 283 (1969).

Science (2)

C. Blakemore and P. Sutton, Science 166, 245 (1969).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Pantle and R. Sekuler, Science 162, 1146 (1968).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (5)

C. H. Graham in Vision and Visual Perception, C. H. Graham, Ed. (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1965), Ch. 15.

G. Fechner, Elements of Psychophysics, Trans. H. E. Adler (H. Holt, New York, 1966), p. 176.

B. Bourdon, La perception visuelle de l’espace (Schleicher Frères, Paris, 1902), p. 116.

J. G. Robson and F. W. Campbell in Symposium on the Physiological Basis for Form Discrimination (Hunter Laboratory of Psychology, Brown University, Providence, R. I., 1964), p. 44.

Because, in our experiments, the subject was about equally often correct on the two types of trial, the normal deviates have a particular significance in the theory of signal detectability [See D. M. Green and J. A. Swets, Signal Detection Theory and Psychophysics (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1966).] Let us suppose that the internal effect of the frequency of a grating can be represented by a random variable. Let us further suppose that, for a given frequency, the random variable is distributed normally, with only the mean of the distribution depending upon the frequency of the grating. Upon these assumptions, the normal deviate of correct responses is just half the value of the mean difference between the distributions generated on high- and low-frequency trials in units of their standard deviation.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Standard deviation (SD) of frequency matches, expressed as a percentage of the standard frequency. Upper panel: subject FWC. Lower panel: subject JJ; filled and empty circles represent results from different days.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Psychometric function for frequency recognition with a lower frequency of 6.5 c/deg. Subject JJ.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The just-noticeable frequency ratio as a function of the lower frequency. Subject JJ.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Psychometric function for frequency recognition with a lower frequency of 19 c/deg. Empty circles: subjective contrast the same for all gratings. Filled circles: luminance contrast the same for all gratings. Subject FWC.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Sinusoidal gratings of various spatial frequencies. The numbers indicate the precentage difference of spatial frequency between each grating and the standard.