Abstract

The experimental signal-to-noise ratios (S/N) of four photomultiplier light-detection systems are obtained for two values of the dc anode signal and dc anode dark current. The photodetection systems investigated are dc amplifier, lock-in, noise power, and combined lock-in plus noise power. Although there is no significant difference between the experimental S/N ratios of the noise power and lock-in-plus-noise-power system, they both produce significantly greater S/N ratios than the other methods. Theoretical S/N ratios are calculated assuming that shot noise only is present, and are compared with the corresponding experimental values.

© 1970 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. Cleary, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 841 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Yoh-Han Pao, R. N. Zitter, and J. E. Griffiths, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1133 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Yoh-Han Pao and J. E. Griffiths, J. Chem. Phys. 46, 1671 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. R. Alfano and N. Ockman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 90 (1968).
    [CrossRef]

1968 (1)

1967 (2)

Yoh-Han Pao and J. E. Griffiths, J. Chem. Phys. 46, 1671 (1967).
[CrossRef]

J. Cleary, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 841 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Combined lock-in-plus-PZG photodetection system. The photomultiplier load resistance is RL and the stray capacitance is C. The experimental apparatus includes a 0.25-m Jarrell–Ash monochromator (effective slit width 3.3 Å), an EMI 9558AQ photomultiplier tube operated at 27°C and a gain of 2 × 107, a PAR model 121 lock-in amplifier, and a Hewlett–Packard model 680 strip-chart recorder.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Circuit diagram of noise-multiplier detection system. The electronic components include RCA-CA 3030 wide-band amplifiers, North Hills model 1702B wide-band transformers, and a Western Electric WE-403A diode ring multiplier.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Linearity of response of combined lock-in-plus-PZG detection system.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table I Theoretical and experimental rms S/N ratios of four photomultiplier light-detection systems, for two values of Is (dc anode signal current) and Id (dc anode dark current). Theoretical S/N ratios assume that shot noise only is present. Noise bandwidth = 830 mHz, photomultiplier gain = 2×107.

Equations (4)

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i n = g [ 2 e I c B ] 1 2 = [ 2 e g I a B ] 1 2 ,
I a = g I c .
( S / N ) dc = I s / [ 2 e g ( I s + I d ) B ] 1 2 ,
( S / N ) lock-in = I s / 2 [ 2 e g ( I s / 2 + I d ) B ] 1 2 .