Abstract

Constricted discharges have been produced in krypton using both pulsed and dc excitation over a total pressure range of 8–120 torr. Light-flux, voltage, and current waveforms were obtained for the pulsed discharge and interpreted in terms of electron excitation and electron–ion recombination processes. Streak-camera photography was used to observe possible changes of the degree of constriction during the pulse and afterglow periods. Detailed profile analysis of spectral lines yielded a value of 380±50 K for the discharge temperature and evidence was found of Stark effects. A new model for the discharge mechanism is proposed, in which diffusion of electrons and ions from the central glowing core is balanced by recombination in the peripheral regions of lower charge density and lower excitation.

© 1970 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. G. Fowler, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) B68, 130 (1955).
  2. C. Kenty, Phys. Rev. 126, 1235 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. T. Massey and S. M. Cannon, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 361 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. T. Massey, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 373 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Sugarawa, Phys. Letters 25A, 154 (1967).
  6. S. D. Vagner, Yu M. Kagan, and G. Yu Khrustalev, Opt. Spectrosc. 25, 88 (1968); contains references to their earlier work.
  7. V. Yu Baranov and K. M. Ul’yanov, JETP Letters 6, 121 (1967).
  8. R. Turner and H. D. Riccius, J. Chem. Phys. 48, 4351 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. P. Edwin and R. Turner, J. Chem. Phys. 50, 4388 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. H. Rank and J. N. Shearer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 463 (1956).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Tudor Davies and J. M. Vaughan, Astron. J. 137, 1302 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. M. Vaughan, Phys. Rev. 166, 13 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  13. V. Middelboe and E. Rasmussen, Mat.–Fys. Medd. 30, 1 (1955).
  14. H. Korsching, Physik 109, 349 (1938).
    [CrossRef]
  15. W. L. Faust and L. Y. Chow Chiu, Phys. Rev. 129, 1214 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  16. K. M. Baird and D. S. Smith, Can. J. Phys. 35, 455 (1957).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. Unsöld, Physik der Sternätmospharen (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1955), pp. 288–306.
  18. H. J. Oskam and V. R. Mittelstadt, Phys. Rev. 132, 1445 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. M. Richardson, Phys. Rev. 88, 895 (1952).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. F. Prince and W. W. Robertson, J. Chem. Phys. 45, 2577 (1966).
    [CrossRef]

1969 (1)

R. P. Edwin and R. Turner, J. Chem. Phys. 50, 4388 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1968 (3)

J. M. Vaughan, Phys. Rev. 166, 13 (1968).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Vagner, Yu M. Kagan, and G. Yu Khrustalev, Opt. Spectrosc. 25, 88 (1968); contains references to their earlier work.

R. Turner and H. D. Riccius, J. Chem. Phys. 48, 4351 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1967 (2)

M. Sugarawa, Phys. Letters 25A, 154 (1967).

V. Yu Baranov and K. M. Ul’yanov, JETP Letters 6, 121 (1967).

1966 (1)

J. F. Prince and W. W. Robertson, J. Chem. Phys. 45, 2577 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1965 (2)

J. T. Massey and S. M. Cannon, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 361 (1965).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Massey, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 373 (1965).
[CrossRef]

1963 (3)

W. L. Faust and L. Y. Chow Chiu, Phys. Rev. 129, 1214 (1963).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Oskam and V. R. Mittelstadt, Phys. Rev. 132, 1445 (1963).
[CrossRef]

J. Tudor Davies and J. M. Vaughan, Astron. J. 137, 1302 (1963).
[CrossRef]

1962 (1)

C. Kenty, Phys. Rev. 126, 1235 (1962).
[CrossRef]

1957 (1)

K. M. Baird and D. S. Smith, Can. J. Phys. 35, 455 (1957).
[CrossRef]

1956 (1)

1955 (2)

V. Middelboe and E. Rasmussen, Mat.–Fys. Medd. 30, 1 (1955).

R. G. Fowler, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) B68, 130 (1955).

1952 (1)

J. M. Richardson, Phys. Rev. 88, 895 (1952).
[CrossRef]

1938 (1)

H. Korsching, Physik 109, 349 (1938).
[CrossRef]

Baird, K. M.

K. M. Baird and D. S. Smith, Can. J. Phys. 35, 455 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Cannon, S. M.

J. T. Massey and S. M. Cannon, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 361 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Chow Chiu, L. Y.

W. L. Faust and L. Y. Chow Chiu, Phys. Rev. 129, 1214 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Edwin, R. P.

R. P. Edwin and R. Turner, J. Chem. Phys. 50, 4388 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Faust, W. L.

W. L. Faust and L. Y. Chow Chiu, Phys. Rev. 129, 1214 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Fowler, R. G.

R. G. Fowler, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) B68, 130 (1955).

Kagan, Yu M.

S. D. Vagner, Yu M. Kagan, and G. Yu Khrustalev, Opt. Spectrosc. 25, 88 (1968); contains references to their earlier work.

Kenty, C.

C. Kenty, Phys. Rev. 126, 1235 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Korsching, H.

H. Korsching, Physik 109, 349 (1938).
[CrossRef]

Massey, J. T.

J. T. Massey and S. M. Cannon, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 361 (1965).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Massey, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 373 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Middelboe, V.

V. Middelboe and E. Rasmussen, Mat.–Fys. Medd. 30, 1 (1955).

Mittelstadt, V. R.

H. J. Oskam and V. R. Mittelstadt, Phys. Rev. 132, 1445 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Oskam, H. J.

H. J. Oskam and V. R. Mittelstadt, Phys. Rev. 132, 1445 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Prince, J. F.

J. F. Prince and W. W. Robertson, J. Chem. Phys. 45, 2577 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Rank, D. H.

Rasmussen, E.

V. Middelboe and E. Rasmussen, Mat.–Fys. Medd. 30, 1 (1955).

Riccius, H. D.

R. Turner and H. D. Riccius, J. Chem. Phys. 48, 4351 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, J. M.

J. M. Richardson, Phys. Rev. 88, 895 (1952).
[CrossRef]

Robertson, W. W.

J. F. Prince and W. W. Robertson, J. Chem. Phys. 45, 2577 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Shearer, J. N.

Smith, D. S.

K. M. Baird and D. S. Smith, Can. J. Phys. 35, 455 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Sugarawa, M.

M. Sugarawa, Phys. Letters 25A, 154 (1967).

Tudor Davies, J.

J. Tudor Davies and J. M. Vaughan, Astron. J. 137, 1302 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Turner, R.

R. P. Edwin and R. Turner, J. Chem. Phys. 50, 4388 (1969).
[CrossRef]

R. Turner and H. D. Riccius, J. Chem. Phys. 48, 4351 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Ul’yanov, K. M.

V. Yu Baranov and K. M. Ul’yanov, JETP Letters 6, 121 (1967).

Unsöld, A.

A. Unsöld, Physik der Sternätmospharen (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1955), pp. 288–306.

Vagner, S. D.

S. D. Vagner, Yu M. Kagan, and G. Yu Khrustalev, Opt. Spectrosc. 25, 88 (1968); contains references to their earlier work.

Vaughan, J. M.

J. M. Vaughan, Phys. Rev. 166, 13 (1968).
[CrossRef]

J. Tudor Davies and J. M. Vaughan, Astron. J. 137, 1302 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Yu Baranov, V.

V. Yu Baranov and K. M. Ul’yanov, JETP Letters 6, 121 (1967).

Yu Khrustalev, G.

S. D. Vagner, Yu M. Kagan, and G. Yu Khrustalev, Opt. Spectrosc. 25, 88 (1968); contains references to their earlier work.

Astron. J. (1)

J. Tudor Davies and J. M. Vaughan, Astron. J. 137, 1302 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Can. J. Phys. (1)

K. M. Baird and D. S. Smith, Can. J. Phys. 35, 455 (1957).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

J. T. Massey and S. M. Cannon, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 361 (1965).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Massey, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 373 (1965).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (3)

R. Turner and H. D. Riccius, J. Chem. Phys. 48, 4351 (1968).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Edwin and R. Turner, J. Chem. Phys. 50, 4388 (1969).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Prince and W. W. Robertson, J. Chem. Phys. 45, 2577 (1966).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

JETP Letters (1)

V. Yu Baranov and K. M. Ul’yanov, JETP Letters 6, 121 (1967).

Mat.–Fys. Medd. (1)

V. Middelboe and E. Rasmussen, Mat.–Fys. Medd. 30, 1 (1955).

Opt. Spectrosc. (1)

S. D. Vagner, Yu M. Kagan, and G. Yu Khrustalev, Opt. Spectrosc. 25, 88 (1968); contains references to their earlier work.

Phys. Letters (1)

M. Sugarawa, Phys. Letters 25A, 154 (1967).

Phys. Rev. (5)

C. Kenty, Phys. Rev. 126, 1235 (1962).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Vaughan, Phys. Rev. 166, 13 (1968).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Oskam and V. R. Mittelstadt, Phys. Rev. 132, 1445 (1963).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Richardson, Phys. Rev. 88, 895 (1952).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Faust and L. Y. Chow Chiu, Phys. Rev. 129, 1214 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Physik (1)

H. Korsching, Physik 109, 349 (1938).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) (1)

R. G. Fowler, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) B68, 130 (1955).

Other (1)

A. Unsöld, Physik der Sternätmospharen (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1955), pp. 288–306.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Voltage and current waveforms for the pulsed constricted discharge at a pressure of 10 torr. The vertical scales are 2 kV/division for the upper trace and 10 mA/division for the lower trace. Horizontal scale 20 μsec/division; prf 150 Hz.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Flux and current waveforms for the pulsed constricted discharge at a pressure of 10 torr. The upper trace is the flux waveform on an uncalibrated vertical scale. The lower current waveform has a vertical scale of 10 mA/division. Horizontal scale 50 μsec/division; prf 150 Hz.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Flux and current waveforms for the pulsed constricted discharge at a pressure of 10 torr. The upper trace is the flux waveform on an uncalibrated vertical scale. The lower current waveform has a vertical scale of 10 mA/division. Horizontal scale 50 μsec/division; prf 150 Hz.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table I Results of the profile analysis for the Kr ii spectral line 5570 Å emitted by the dc-excited constricted discharge. Current 15–20 mA.

Tables Icon

Table II Half-value widths of the lorentzian and gaussian components and the associated Doppler temperatures for the spectral line 5570 Å emitted by the pulsed constricted discharge. The lorentzian widths were obtained by extrapolation of the results of Table I to zero pressure.

Equations (1)

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Kr * + 2 Kr = Kr e * + Kr .