Abstract

Threshold summation indices were determined in a study of interrelations among Stiles π mechanisms. Test wavelengths of 630, 520, 475, and 420 nm were presented upon a 555-nm adapting field. The 630–520-nm test-stimulus combination showed very small summation indices compared to the index derived on the assumption of independence of the π<sub>4</sub> and π<sub>5</sub> mechanisms. We suggest that <sub>5</sub> is not a single or unitary mechanism, but is comprised of two components, π<sub>5<i>r</i></sub> and π<sub>5<i>g</i></sub>, that may inhibit or cancel each other’s effects in producing the net response of mechanism π<sub>5</sub>. The hypothesis also explains fairly well the observed small index for the combination 630–475 nm at low field luminance. The mechanisms π<sub>1</sub>, π<sub>4</sub>, and the composite π<sub>5</sub> seem to be independent, as shown by good agreement between the calculated and experimental indices at high field luminance for the combination 630–475 nm, and over the entire range of field luminance for the combination 520–475 nm. Complete summation is observed for the combination 475–420 nm at high field luminance, with which mechanism π<sub>1</sub> should be almost exclusively involved.

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  1. M. Ikeda, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 1305 (1963).
  2. M. Ikeda, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 89 (1964).
  3. R. M. Boynton, M. Ikeda, and W. S. Stiles, Vision Res. 4, 87 (1964).
  4. W. S. Stiles, Newton Lecture, J. Colour Group No. 11, 106 (1967).
  5. S. L. Guth, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 718 (1965).
  6. S. L. Guth, J. V. Alexander, J. I. Chumbly, C. B. Gillman, and M. M. Patterson, Vision Res. 8, 913 (1968).
  7. M. Alpern and W. A. H. Rushton, J. Physiol. (London) 176, 473 (1965).
  8. R. M. Boynton and S. R. Das, Science 156, 1581 (1966).
  9. R. M. Boynton, S. R. Das, and J. Gardiner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1775 (1966).
  10. W. S. Stiles, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (U.S.) 45, 100 (1959).
  11. F. H. C. Marriott in The Eye, H. Davson, Ed. (J. & A. Churchill Ltd., London, 1962), Vol. 2, p. 261.
  12. G. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, Color Science (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1967), p. 574.
  13. M. Ikeda and M. Urakubo, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 217 (1969).
  14. The characteristics of π5′ are known only in an incomplete and tentative sense. The proposed spectral sensitivity is given on p. 574 of Ref. 12.
  15. G. Wald, Science 145, 1007 (1964).
  16. R. M. Boynton, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 165 (1963).

Alexander, J. V.

S. L. Guth, J. V. Alexander, J. I. Chumbly, C. B. Gillman, and M. M. Patterson, Vision Res. 8, 913 (1968).

Alpern, M.

M. Alpern and W. A. H. Rushton, J. Physiol. (London) 176, 473 (1965).

Boynton, R. M.

R. M. Boynton, S. R. Das, and J. Gardiner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1775 (1966).

R. M. Boynton, M. Ikeda, and W. S. Stiles, Vision Res. 4, 87 (1964).

R. M. Boynton and S. R. Das, Science 156, 1581 (1966).

R. M. Boynton, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 165 (1963).

Chumbly, J. I.

S. L. Guth, J. V. Alexander, J. I. Chumbly, C. B. Gillman, and M. M. Patterson, Vision Res. 8, 913 (1968).

Das, S. R.

R. M. Boynton and S. R. Das, Science 156, 1581 (1966).

R. M. Boynton, S. R. Das, and J. Gardiner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1775 (1966).

Gardiner, J.

R. M. Boynton, S. R. Das, and J. Gardiner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1775 (1966).

Gillman, C. B.

S. L. Guth, J. V. Alexander, J. I. Chumbly, C. B. Gillman, and M. M. Patterson, Vision Res. 8, 913 (1968).

Guth, S. L.

S. L. Guth, J. V. Alexander, J. I. Chumbly, C. B. Gillman, and M. M. Patterson, Vision Res. 8, 913 (1968).

S. L. Guth, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 718 (1965).

Ikeda, M.

R. M. Boynton, M. Ikeda, and W. S. Stiles, Vision Res. 4, 87 (1964).

M. Ikeda, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 1305 (1963).

M. Ikeda and M. Urakubo, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 217 (1969).

M. Ikeda, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 89 (1964).

Marriott, F. H. C.

F. H. C. Marriott in The Eye, H. Davson, Ed. (J. & A. Churchill Ltd., London, 1962), Vol. 2, p. 261.

Patterson, M. M.

S. L. Guth, J. V. Alexander, J. I. Chumbly, C. B. Gillman, and M. M. Patterson, Vision Res. 8, 913 (1968).

Rushton, W. A. H.

M. Alpern and W. A. H. Rushton, J. Physiol. (London) 176, 473 (1965).

Stiles, W. S.

R. M. Boynton, M. Ikeda, and W. S. Stiles, Vision Res. 4, 87 (1964).

W. S. Stiles, Newton Lecture, J. Colour Group No. 11, 106 (1967).

W. S. Stiles, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (U.S.) 45, 100 (1959).

G. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, Color Science (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1967), p. 574.

Urakubo, M.

M. Ikeda and M. Urakubo, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 217 (1969).

Wald, G.

G. Wald, Science 145, 1007 (1964).

Wyszecki, G.

G. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, Color Science (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1967), p. 574.

Other (16)

M. Ikeda, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 1305 (1963).

M. Ikeda, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 89 (1964).

R. M. Boynton, M. Ikeda, and W. S. Stiles, Vision Res. 4, 87 (1964).

W. S. Stiles, Newton Lecture, J. Colour Group No. 11, 106 (1967).

S. L. Guth, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 718 (1965).

S. L. Guth, J. V. Alexander, J. I. Chumbly, C. B. Gillman, and M. M. Patterson, Vision Res. 8, 913 (1968).

M. Alpern and W. A. H. Rushton, J. Physiol. (London) 176, 473 (1965).

R. M. Boynton and S. R. Das, Science 156, 1581 (1966).

R. M. Boynton, S. R. Das, and J. Gardiner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1775 (1966).

W. S. Stiles, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (U.S.) 45, 100 (1959).

F. H. C. Marriott in The Eye, H. Davson, Ed. (J. & A. Churchill Ltd., London, 1962), Vol. 2, p. 261.

G. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, Color Science (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1967), p. 574.

M. Ikeda and M. Urakubo, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 217 (1969).

The characteristics of π5′ are known only in an incomplete and tentative sense. The proposed spectral sensitivity is given on p. 574 of Ref. 12.

G. Wald, Science 145, 1007 (1964).

R. M. Boynton, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 165 (1963).

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