Abstract

The summation index for double flashes was psychophysically obtained as a function of interflash interval t for five different adapting levels. Clear inhibition was found at about t = 50 and at t = 70 msec for the two brightest adapting fields. Inhibition was also observed at very large intervals, including t = 300 msec. To explain the curve, a temporal response with a positive component and a negative component (type-B response) was hypothesized for the human visual system, whose physiological correlates are discussed. For relatively low adapting levels, including dark adaptation, the summation-index curves showed a somewhat different shape. They did not show strong inhibition, but rather weak and long-continued inhibition, ranging from about t = 100 through 300 msec. Therefore, the temporal response for those conditions may be composed of a small but long-continued negative component (type-A response). The transfer from type-A response to type-B response is rather abrupt; it occurs at the adapting level where the increment threshold begins to increase from the value that corresponds to the absolute threshold.

© 1970 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. M. Ikeda and M. Urakubo, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 217 (1969).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. See, for example, W. S. Stiles, in Proc. Coloquio sobre Problemas Opticos de la Vision (Union Intern. Phys. pure et appliquée, 1953), p. 65.
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. R. W. Rodieck and J. Stone, J. Neurophysiol. 28, 833 (1965).
  15. H. B. Barlow, R. FitzHugh, and S. W. Kuffler, J. Physiol. (London) 173, 338 (1957).

1969 (1)

1968 (1)

1967 (1)

W. S. Stiles, J. Colour Group 11, 106 (1967).

1966 (1)

1965 (2)

R. W. Rodieck and J. Stone, J. Neurophysiol. 28, 833 (1965).

M. Ikeda, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 1527 (1965).
[CrossRef]

1964 (1)

R. M. Boynton, M. Ikeda, and W. S. Stiles, Vision Res. 4, 87 (1964).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1963 (1)

1961 (2)

1957 (1)

H. B. Barlow, R. FitzHugh, and S. W. Kuffler, J. Physiol. (London) 173, 338 (1957).

1954 (1)

1952 (1)

1931 (1)

R. Granit and W. A. Davis, Am. J. Physiol. 98, 644 (1931).

Barlow, H. B.

H. B. Barlow, R. FitzHugh, and S. W. Kuffler, J. Physiol. (London) 173, 338 (1957).

Blackwell, H. R.

Bouman, M. A.

Boynton, R. M.

R. M. Boynton, M. Ikeda, and W. S. Stiles, Vision Res. 4, 87 (1964).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Boynton, J. F. Sturr, and M. Ikeda, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 196 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Davis, W. A.

R. Granit and W. A. Davis, Am. J. Physiol. 98, 644 (1931).

FitzHugh, R.

H. B. Barlow, R. FitzHugh, and S. W. Kuffler, J. Physiol. (London) 173, 338 (1957).

Fujii, T.

Granit, R.

R. Granit and W. A. Davis, Am. J. Physiol. 98, 644 (1931).

Ikeda, M.

Kelly, D. H.

Kuffler, S. W.

H. B. Barlow, R. FitzHugh, and S. W. Kuffler, J. Physiol. (London) 173, 338 (1957).

Rodieck, R. W.

R. W. Rodieck and J. Stone, J. Neurophysiol. 28, 833 (1965).

Sondhi, M. M.

Sperling, G.

Stiles, W. S.

W. S. Stiles, J. Colour Group 11, 106 (1967).

R. M. Boynton, M. Ikeda, and W. S. Stiles, Vision Res. 4, 87 (1964).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

See, for example, W. S. Stiles, in Proc. Coloquio sobre Problemas Opticos de la Vision (Union Intern. Phys. pure et appliquée, 1953), p. 65.

Stone, J.

R. W. Rodieck and J. Stone, J. Neurophysiol. 28, 833 (1965).

Sturr, J. F.

Urakubo, M.

van den Brink, G.

Am. J. Physiol. (1)

R. Granit and W. A. Davis, Am. J. Physiol. 98, 644 (1931).

J. Colour Group (1)

W. S. Stiles, J. Colour Group 11, 106 (1967).

J. Neurophysiol. (1)

R. W. Rodieck and J. Stone, J. Neurophysiol. 28, 833 (1965).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (9)

J. Physiol. (London) (1)

H. B. Barlow, R. FitzHugh, and S. W. Kuffler, J. Physiol. (London) 173, 338 (1957).

Vision Res. (1)

R. M. Boynton, M. Ikeda, and W. S. Stiles, Vision Res. 4, 87 (1964).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

See, for example, W. S. Stiles, in Proc. Coloquio sobre Problemas Opticos de la Vision (Union Intern. Phys. pure et appliquée, 1953), p. 65.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Summation indices at various inter-flash intervals for five adapting levels. (a) log L = 2.48 td, (b) 1.26, (c) 0.02, (d) 2 ¯.80, and (e) zero adaptation. Subject T.U.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Threshold-vs-radiance (tvr) curve from subject T.U. Wavelength of test stimulus and adapting field is 630 nm. Foveal fixation.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Slope of the initial decreases of the summation-index curves, taken from Fig. 1. The steepest slope is from the highest adapting level. The slope becomes less as the adapting level becomes lower.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Suggested temporal visual responses to explain the summation-index curves. Solid (type-A response) for dark-adapted eye and dashed (type-B response) for a bright-adapted eye.