Abstract

The summation index for double flashes was psychophysically obtained as a function of interflash interval t for five different adapting levels. Clear inhibition was found at about <i>t</i> = 50 and at <i>t</i> = 70 msec for the two brightest adapting fields. Inhibition was also observed at very large intervals, including <i>t</i> = 300 msec. To explain the curve, a temporal response with a positive component and a negative component (type-<i>B</i> response) was hypothesized for the human visual system, whose physiological correlates are discussed. For relatively low adapting levels, including dark adaptation, the summation-index curves showed a somewhat different shape. They did not show strong inhibition, but rather weak and long-continued inhibition, ranging from about <i>t</i> = 100 through 300 msec. Therefore, the temporal response for those conditions may be composed of a small but long-continued negative component (type-<i>A</i> response). The transfer from type-<i>A</i> response to type-<i>B</i> response is rather abrupt; it occurs at the adapting level where the increment threshold begins to increase from the value that corresponds to the absolute threshold.

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  1. R. Granit and W. A. Davis, Am. J. Physiol. 98, 644 (1931).
  2. M. A. Bouman and G. van den Brink, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 617 (1952).
  3. G. van den Brink, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 616 (1954).
  4. H. R. Blackwell, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 129 (1963).
  5. M. Ikeda, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 1527 (1965).
  6. M. Ikeda and T. Fujii, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1129 (1966).
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  11. See, for example, W. S. Stiles, in Proc. Coloquio sobre Problemas Opticos de la Vision (Union Intern. Phys. pure et appliquée, 1953), p. 65.
  12. D. H. Kelly, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 747 (1961).
  13. G. Sperling and M. M. Sondhi, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 1133 (1968).
  14. R. W. Rodieck and J. Stone, J. Neurophysiol. 28, 833 (1965).
  15. H. B. Barlow, R. FitzHugh, and S. W. Kuffler, J. Physiol. (London) 173, 338 (1957).

Barlow, H. B.

H. B. Barlow, R. FitzHugh, and S. W. Kuffler, J. Physiol. (London) 173, 338 (1957).

Blackwell, H. R.

H. R. Blackwell, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 129 (1963).

Bouman, M. A.

M. A. Bouman and G. van den Brink, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 617 (1952).

Boynton, R. M.

R. M. Boynton, J. F. Sturr, and M. Ikeda, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 196 (1961).

R. M. Boynton, M. Ikeda, and W. S. Stiles, Vision Res. 4, 87 (1964).

Davis, W. A.

R. Granit and W. A. Davis, Am. J. Physiol. 98, 644 (1931).

FitzHugh, R.

H. B. Barlow, R. FitzHugh, and S. W. Kuffler, J. Physiol. (London) 173, 338 (1957).

Fujii, T.

M. Ikeda and T. Fujii, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1129 (1966).

Granit, R.

R. Granit and W. A. Davis, Am. J. Physiol. 98, 644 (1931).

Ikeda, M.

M. Ikeda, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 1527 (1965).

M. Ikeda and T. Fujii, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1129 (1966).

M. Ikeda and M. Urakubo, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 217 (1969).

R. M. Boynton, M. Ikeda, and W. S. Stiles, Vision Res. 4, 87 (1964).

R. M. Boynton, J. F. Sturr, and M. Ikeda, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 196 (1961).

Kelly, D. H.

D. H. Kelly, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 747 (1961).

Kuffler, S. W.

H. B. Barlow, R. FitzHugh, and S. W. Kuffler, J. Physiol. (London) 173, 338 (1957).

Rodieck, R. W.

R. W. Rodieck and J. Stone, J. Neurophysiol. 28, 833 (1965).

Sondhi, M. M.

G. Sperling and M. M. Sondhi, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 1133 (1968).

Sperling, G.

G. Sperling and M. M. Sondhi, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 1133 (1968).

Stiles, W. S.

W. S. Stiles, J. Colour Group 11, 106 (1967).

R. M. Boynton, M. Ikeda, and W. S. Stiles, Vision Res. 4, 87 (1964).

See, for example, W. S. Stiles, in Proc. Coloquio sobre Problemas Opticos de la Vision (Union Intern. Phys. pure et appliquée, 1953), p. 65.

Stone, J.

R. W. Rodieck and J. Stone, J. Neurophysiol. 28, 833 (1965).

Sturr, J. F.

R. M. Boynton, J. F. Sturr, and M. Ikeda, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 196 (1961).

Urakubo, M.

M. Ikeda and M. Urakubo, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 217 (1969).

van den Brink, G.

M. A. Bouman and G. van den Brink, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 617 (1952).

G. van den Brink, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 616 (1954).

Other (15)

R. Granit and W. A. Davis, Am. J. Physiol. 98, 644 (1931).

M. A. Bouman and G. van den Brink, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 617 (1952).

G. van den Brink, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 616 (1954).

H. R. Blackwell, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 129 (1963).

M. Ikeda, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 1527 (1965).

M. Ikeda and T. Fujii, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1129 (1966).

R. M. Boynton, J. F. Sturr, and M. Ikeda, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 196 (1961).

W. S. Stiles, J. Colour Group 11, 106 (1967).

R. M. Boynton, M. Ikeda, and W. S. Stiles, Vision Res. 4, 87 (1964).

M. Ikeda and M. Urakubo, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 217 (1969).

See, for example, W. S. Stiles, in Proc. Coloquio sobre Problemas Opticos de la Vision (Union Intern. Phys. pure et appliquée, 1953), p. 65.

D. H. Kelly, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 747 (1961).

G. Sperling and M. M. Sondhi, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 1133 (1968).

R. W. Rodieck and J. Stone, J. Neurophysiol. 28, 833 (1965).

H. B. Barlow, R. FitzHugh, and S. W. Kuffler, J. Physiol. (London) 173, 338 (1957).

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