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The range of the parameters p, q satisfying Eq. (3b) describes evanescent waves which decay very rapidly outside region II of Fig. 1, and is not readily observed experimentally. These waves carry information of object structures with dimensions smaller than about λ. Since they are hard to detect, they have little effect on the measured field and are neglected here. One of the anonymous reviewers pointed out that evanescent waves have been detected with holograms by K. A. Stetson [Appl. Phys. Letters 12, 362 (1968)], H. Nassenstein [Phys. Letters 29A, 175 (1969)], and Olof Bryngdahl [J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 1645 (1969)].
H. L. Van Trees, Detection, Estimation and Modulation Theory (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1968), Pt. I, p. 169.
The variation of phase at the discontinuties in Figs. 11 and 13 was faster than 2π rad/sample interval. Thus it is impossible to determine the phases in different discontinuous segments of the data, to the same phase reference. The true phase difference between points on different segments of the phase data is unknown by an interval equal to an integral multiple of 2π. To plot all segments together in Figs. 11 and 13, the 2π intervals have been discarded; the segments are shown on the same scale in a physically reasonable manner.