Abstract

Two psychophysical responses to surface or self-luminous stimuli are hypothesized. A response to the luminance of the stimulus (α) and a response to the luminance difference between the stimulus and its surround (β) are both considered to be power functions. Lightness or brightness is taken to be an additive or subtractive combination of these two responses (α±Kβ) depending on whether the surround is darker or brighter than the stimulus, respectively. This model is shown to produce a quantitatively adequate explanation of Takasaki’s data on crispening. An attempt is made to use this formulation to fit scaling data from previous magnitude-estimation and partitioning studies of lightness and brightness in which different results have been obtained from different backgrounds. Data from matching experiments that involve different backgrounds for the comparison and standard stimuli are also analyzed by means of the same formulation. The model is compared with the Adams-Cobb-Judd formulation of background effect on lightness, the Takasaki empirical formula for crispening, and Stevens’s power-law formulation for brightness and lightness.

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |

  1. E. Q. Adams and P. W. Cobb, J. Exptl. Psychot. 5, 39 (1922).
  2. D. B. Judd, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std. (U.S.) 24, 293 (1940).
  3. T. Kaneko, Acta Chromatica. 1, 103 (1963).
  4. S. S. Stevens, in Psychological Scaling; Theory and Applications, edited by H. Gulliksen and S. Messick (Wiley, New York, 1960), p. 49.
  5. W. S. Torgerson, in Ref. 4, p. 21.
  6. D. B. Judd, Color Eng. 8, 36 (1970).
  7. S. S. Stevens, Psychol. Rev. 64, 153 (1957).
  8. S. S. Stevens, in Sensory Communication, edited by W. A. Rosenblith (M.I.T. Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1961), p. 1.
  9. S. S. Stevens, Science 133, 80 (1961).
  10. D. Jameson and L. Hurvich, Vision Res. 4, 133 (1964).
  11. H. Takasaki, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 504 (1966).
  12. J. C. Stevens and S. S. Stevens, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 375 (1963).
  13. D. B. Judd and G. Wyszecki Color in Business, Science and Iudustry (Wiley, New York, 1963).
  14. S. M. Newhall, D. Nickerson, and D. B. Judd, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 385 (1943).
  15. S. M. Newhall, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 30, 617, (1940).
  16. The actual illuminances used in the study are unavailable. However, G. Howett made available to the author the illuminances that were used in a recent (as yet unpublished) study of the OSA Committee on Uniform Color Scales, which also instructed its observers to use north-sky light or its equivalent. The mean illuminance reported was approximately 1500 lx.
  17. J. J. Glenn and J. T. Killian, J.Opt. Soc. Am. 30, 609 (1940).
  18. H. Helson, Adaptation-Level Theory (Harper and Row, New York, 1964).
  19. H. Helson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 555 (1943).

Adams, E. Q.

E. Q. Adams and P. W. Cobb, J. Exptl. Psychot. 5, 39 (1922).

Cobb, P. W.

E. Q. Adams and P. W. Cobb, J. Exptl. Psychot. 5, 39 (1922).

Glenn, J. J.

J. J. Glenn and J. T. Killian, J.Opt. Soc. Am. 30, 609 (1940).

Helson, H.

H. Helson, Adaptation-Level Theory (Harper and Row, New York, 1964).

H. Helson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 555 (1943).

Hurvich, L.

D. Jameson and L. Hurvich, Vision Res. 4, 133 (1964).

Jameson, D.

D. Jameson and L. Hurvich, Vision Res. 4, 133 (1964).

Judd, D. B.

S. M. Newhall, D. Nickerson, and D. B. Judd, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 385 (1943).

D. B. Judd and G. Wyszecki Color in Business, Science and Iudustry (Wiley, New York, 1963).

D. B. Judd, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std. (U.S.) 24, 293 (1940).

D. B. Judd, Color Eng. 8, 36 (1970).

Kaneko, T.

T. Kaneko, Acta Chromatica. 1, 103 (1963).

Killian, J. T.

J. J. Glenn and J. T. Killian, J.Opt. Soc. Am. 30, 609 (1940).

Newhall, S. M.

S. M. Newhall, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 30, 617, (1940).

S. M. Newhall, D. Nickerson, and D. B. Judd, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 385 (1943).

Nickerson, D.

S. M. Newhall, D. Nickerson, and D. B. Judd, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 385 (1943).

Stevens, J. C.

J. C. Stevens and S. S. Stevens, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 375 (1963).

Stevens, S. S.

J. C. Stevens and S. S. Stevens, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 375 (1963).

S. S. Stevens, in Psychological Scaling; Theory and Applications, edited by H. Gulliksen and S. Messick (Wiley, New York, 1960), p. 49.

S. S. Stevens, Psychol. Rev. 64, 153 (1957).

S. S. Stevens, in Sensory Communication, edited by W. A. Rosenblith (M.I.T. Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1961), p. 1.

S. S. Stevens, Science 133, 80 (1961).

Takasaki, H.

H. Takasaki, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 504 (1966).

Torgerson, W. S.

W. S. Torgerson, in Ref. 4, p. 21.

Wyszecki, G.

D. B. Judd and G. Wyszecki Color in Business, Science and Iudustry (Wiley, New York, 1963).

Other (19)

E. Q. Adams and P. W. Cobb, J. Exptl. Psychot. 5, 39 (1922).

D. B. Judd, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std. (U.S.) 24, 293 (1940).

T. Kaneko, Acta Chromatica. 1, 103 (1963).

S. S. Stevens, in Psychological Scaling; Theory and Applications, edited by H. Gulliksen and S. Messick (Wiley, New York, 1960), p. 49.

W. S. Torgerson, in Ref. 4, p. 21.

D. B. Judd, Color Eng. 8, 36 (1970).

S. S. Stevens, Psychol. Rev. 64, 153 (1957).

S. S. Stevens, in Sensory Communication, edited by W. A. Rosenblith (M.I.T. Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1961), p. 1.

S. S. Stevens, Science 133, 80 (1961).

D. Jameson and L. Hurvich, Vision Res. 4, 133 (1964).

H. Takasaki, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 504 (1966).

J. C. Stevens and S. S. Stevens, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 375 (1963).

D. B. Judd and G. Wyszecki Color in Business, Science and Iudustry (Wiley, New York, 1963).

S. M. Newhall, D. Nickerson, and D. B. Judd, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 385 (1943).

S. M. Newhall, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 30, 617, (1940).

The actual illuminances used in the study are unavailable. However, G. Howett made available to the author the illuminances that were used in a recent (as yet unpublished) study of the OSA Committee on Uniform Color Scales, which also instructed its observers to use north-sky light or its equivalent. The mean illuminance reported was approximately 1500 lx.

J. J. Glenn and J. T. Killian, J.Opt. Soc. Am. 30, 609 (1940).

H. Helson, Adaptation-Level Theory (Harper and Row, New York, 1964).

H. Helson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 555 (1943).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.