Abstract

A laser beam can be coupled with high efficiency into a light-guiding thin film by means of a prism-film coupler. Basically this device is a totally reflecting prism, the light-guiding film being separated from the reflecting prism face by a narrow gap of reduced refractive index. This coupling scheme is analyzed in detail by the method of plane-wave expansion. It is shown how the coupling efficiency is determined by the competition between the desired coupling effect and the reverse effect of leakage. A general condition is derived under which the transverse profile of the input beam continues undistorted into the guide. The theory is illustrated for a gaussian beam, which allows a maximum coupling efficiency of 0.80.

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  1. S. E. Miller, Bell System Tech. J. 48, 2059 (1969).
  2. R. Shubert and J. H. Harris, IEEE Trans. MTT-16, 1048 (1968).
  3. P. K. Tien, R. Ulrich, and R. J. Martin, Appl. Phys. Letters 14, 291 (1969).
  4. J. E. Midwinter and F. Zernike, Appl. Phys. Letters 16, 198 (1970).
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  6. P. K. Tien and R. Ulrich, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 1325 (1970).
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  15. D. Marcuse, Bell System Tech. J. 49, 273 (1970).
  16. H. Osterberg and L. W. Smith, J. Opt. Am. 54, 1078 (1964).
  17. L. Bergstein and C. Shulman, Appl. Opt. 5, 9 (1966).

Bergstein, L.

L. Bergstein and C. Shulman, Appl. Opt. 5, 9 (1966).

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 3rd ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1964).

Boyd, G. D.

G. D. Boyd and J. P. Gordon, Bell System Tech. J. 40, 489 (1961).

Flam, R. F.

E. R. Schineller, R. F. Flam, and D. W. Wilmot, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 1171 (1968).

Gordon, J. P.

G. D. Boyd and J. P. Gordon, Bell System Tech. J. 40, 489 (1961).

Hansen, W. N.

W. N. Hansen, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 380 (1968).

Harris, J. H.

R. Shubert and J. H. Harris, IEEE Trans. MTT-16, 1048 (1968).

Kane, J.

J. Kane and H. Osterberg, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 347 (1964).

Kogelnik, H.

H. Kogelnik and T. Li, Appl. Opt. 5, 1550 (1966).

Li, T.

H. Kogelnik and T. Li, Appl. Opt. 5, 1550 (1966).

Marcuse, D.

D. Marcuse, Bell System Tech. J. 49, 273 (1970).

Martin, R. J.

P. K. Tien, R. Ulrich, and R. J. Martin, Appl. Phys. Letters 14, 291 (1969).

Martz, C. W.

C. W. Martz, Tables of the Complex Fresnel Integral, NASA Spec. Publ. 3010 (NASA Scientific and Tech. Division, Washington, D. C., 1964).

Midwinter, J. E.

J. E. Midwinter and F. Zernike, Appl. Phys. Letters 16, 198 (1970).

J. E. Midwinter, IEEE J. QE-6, 583 (1970).

Miller, S. E.

S. E. Miller, Bell System Tech. J. 48, 2059 (1969).

Osterberg, H.

H. Osterberg and L. W. Smith, J. Opt. Am. 54, 1078 (1964).

J. Kane and H. Osterberg, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 347 (1964).

Schineller, E. R.

E. R. Schineller, R. F. Flam, and D. W. Wilmot, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 1171 (1968).

Shubert, R.

R. Shubert and J. H. Harris, IEEE Trans. MTT-16, 1048 (1968).

Shulman, C.

L. Bergstein and C. Shulman, Appl. Opt. 5, 9 (1966).

Smith, L. W.

H. Osterberg and L. W. Smith, J. Opt. Am. 54, 1078 (1964).

Tien, P. K.

P. K. Tien and R. Ulrich, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 1325 (1970).

P. K. Tien, R. Ulrich, and R. J. Martin, Appl. Phys. Letters 14, 291 (1969).

Ulrich, R.

P. K. Tien, R. Ulrich, and R. J. Martin, Appl. Phys. Letters 14, 291 (1969).

P. K. Tien and R. Ulrich, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 1325 (1970).

Wilmot, D. W.

E. R. Schineller, R. F. Flam, and D. W. Wilmot, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 1171 (1968).

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 3rd ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1964).

Zernike, F.

J. E. Midwinter and F. Zernike, Appl. Phys. Letters 16, 198 (1970).

Other (17)

S. E. Miller, Bell System Tech. J. 48, 2059 (1969).

R. Shubert and J. H. Harris, IEEE Trans. MTT-16, 1048 (1968).

P. K. Tien, R. Ulrich, and R. J. Martin, Appl. Phys. Letters 14, 291 (1969).

J. E. Midwinter and F. Zernike, Appl. Phys. Letters 16, 198 (1970).

J. E. Midwinter, IEEE J. QE-6, 583 (1970).

P. K. Tien and R. Ulrich, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 1325 (1970).

J. Kane and H. Osterberg, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 347 (1964).

E. R. Schineller, R. F. Flam, and D. W. Wilmot, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 1171 (1968).

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 3rd ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1964).

W. N. Hansen, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 380 (1968).

G. D. Boyd and J. P. Gordon, Bell System Tech. J. 40, 489 (1961).

H. Kogelnik and T. Li, Appl. Opt. 5, 1550 (1966).

Handbook of Mathematical Functions, edited by M. Abramowitz and I. A. Stegun, Natl. Bur. Stds. (U.S.) Handb. Appl. Math. Ser. (U. S. Govt. Printing Office, Washington, D. C., 1964; Dover, New York, 1965).

C. W. Martz, Tables of the Complex Fresnel Integral, NASA Spec. Publ. 3010 (NASA Scientific and Tech. Division, Washington, D. C., 1964).

D. Marcuse, Bell System Tech. J. 49, 273 (1970).

H. Osterberg and L. W. Smith, J. Opt. Am. 54, 1078 (1964).

L. Bergstein and C. Shulman, Appl. Opt. 5, 9 (1966).

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