Abstract

The strong coupling between photons and surface plasmons that occur on rough metal surfaces permits optical measurements of the shift of the surface plasma resonance frequency when the metal surface is covered with a thin film. Thin, discontinuous silver sulfide tarnish films on silver shift the resonance to lower frequencies and also damp the resonance, in agreement with surface plasmon dispersion theory. The wavelength of the dominant surface plasma wave is large compared to the size of the discontinuities, so the effect of the thin film should be the same as that of a continuous film whose thickness is the average thickness of the discontinuous film. On this basis, the thicknesses of several silver sulfide films are calculated from the measured frequency shift of the resonance peak and are found to be in excellent agreement with values determined from independent ellipsometric measurements.

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  1. H. E. Bennett and J. M. Bennett, in Physics of Thin Films, G. Hass and R. E. Thun, Eds. (Academic Press Inc., New York, 1967), Vol. 4, pp. 37–41.
  2. H. E. Bennett, D. K. Burge, R. L. Peck, and J. M. Bennett, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 675 (1969).
  3. H. Raether, Surface Sci. 8, 233 (1967).
  4. T. Kloos, Z. Physik 208, 77 (1968).
  5. S. N. Jasperson and S. E. Schnatterly, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 12, 399 (1967).
  6. J. L. Stanford, H. E. Bennett, J. M. Bennett, E. J. Ashley, and E. T. Arakawa, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 13, 989 (1968).
  7. O. Hunderi and D. Beaglehole, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 14, 26 (1969).
  8. R. A. Ferrell, Phys. Rev. 111, 1214 (1958).
  9. E. A. Stern and R. A. Ferrell, Phys. Rev. 120, 130 (1960).
  10. R. H. Ritchie, Surface Sci. 3, 497 (1965).
  11. E. A. Stern, in Optical Properties and Electronic Structure of Metals and Alloys, F. Abelès, Ed. (North-Holland Publ. Co., Amsterdam, 1966), p. 396.
  12. Y. Teng and E. A. Stern, Phys. Rev. Letters 19, 511 (1967).
  13. P. A. Fedders, Phys. Rev. 165, 580 (1968); R. H. Ritchie and R. E. Wilems, Phys. Rev. 178, 372 (1969).
  14. A. Otto, Z. Physik 185, 232 (1965).
  15. The values used were obtained from the highest measured reflectance from smooth, freshly evaporated silver films. These values differ only slightly from those of Huebner et al. [R. H. Huebner, E. T. Arakawa, R. A. MacRae, and R. N. Hamm, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 1434 (1964).]
  16. Ralph W. Dietz and Jean M. Bennett, Appl. Opt. 5, 881 (1966).
  17. H. E. Bennett and J. F. Roberts, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 568A (1964)
  18. D. K. Burge, J. M. Bennett, R. L. Peck, and H. E. Bennett, in Proceedings of tIe Conference on Recent Developments in Ellipsonetry, Surface Sci. 16, 303 (1969).
  19. See Ref. 1, pp. 17–18.
  20. H. E. Bennett and J. O. Porteus, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 123 (1961).
  21. J. M. Bennett, J. L. Stanford, and E. J. Ashley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 499A (1969).
  22. H. E. Bennett, R. L. Peck, D. K. Burge, and J. M. Bennett, J. Appl. Phys. 40, 3351 (1969).

Arakawa, E. T.

J. L. Stanford, H. E. Bennett, J. M. Bennett, E. J. Ashley, and E. T. Arakawa, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 13, 989 (1968).

Ashley, E. J.

J. L. Stanford, H. E. Bennett, J. M. Bennett, E. J. Ashley, and E. T. Arakawa, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 13, 989 (1968).

J. M. Bennett, J. L. Stanford, and E. J. Ashley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 499A (1969).

Beaglehole, D.

O. Hunderi and D. Beaglehole, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 14, 26 (1969).

Bennett, H. E.

H. E. Bennett, R. L. Peck, D. K. Burge, and J. M. Bennett, J. Appl. Phys. 40, 3351 (1969).

D. K. Burge, J. M. Bennett, R. L. Peck, and H. E. Bennett, in Proceedings of tIe Conference on Recent Developments in Ellipsonetry, Surface Sci. 16, 303 (1969).

H. E. Bennett and J. M. Bennett, in Physics of Thin Films, G. Hass and R. E. Thun, Eds. (Academic Press Inc., New York, 1967), Vol. 4, pp. 37–41.

H. E. Bennett, D. K. Burge, R. L. Peck, and J. M. Bennett, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 675 (1969).

H. E. Bennett and J. F. Roberts, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 568A (1964)

H. E. Bennett and J. O. Porteus, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 123 (1961).

J. L. Stanford, H. E. Bennett, J. M. Bennett, E. J. Ashley, and E. T. Arakawa, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 13, 989 (1968).

Bennett, J. M.

J. L. Stanford, H. E. Bennett, J. M. Bennett, E. J. Ashley, and E. T. Arakawa, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 13, 989 (1968).

H. E. Bennett, D. K. Burge, R. L. Peck, and J. M. Bennett, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 675 (1969).

J. M. Bennett, J. L. Stanford, and E. J. Ashley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 499A (1969).

H. E. Bennett and J. M. Bennett, in Physics of Thin Films, G. Hass and R. E. Thun, Eds. (Academic Press Inc., New York, 1967), Vol. 4, pp. 37–41.

D. K. Burge, J. M. Bennett, R. L. Peck, and H. E. Bennett, in Proceedings of tIe Conference on Recent Developments in Ellipsonetry, Surface Sci. 16, 303 (1969).

H. E. Bennett, R. L. Peck, D. K. Burge, and J. M. Bennett, J. Appl. Phys. 40, 3351 (1969).

Bennett, Jean M.

Ralph W. Dietz and Jean M. Bennett, Appl. Opt. 5, 881 (1966).

Burge, D. K.

D. K. Burge, J. M. Bennett, R. L. Peck, and H. E. Bennett, in Proceedings of tIe Conference on Recent Developments in Ellipsonetry, Surface Sci. 16, 303 (1969).

H. E. Bennett, R. L. Peck, D. K. Burge, and J. M. Bennett, J. Appl. Phys. 40, 3351 (1969).

H. E. Bennett, D. K. Burge, R. L. Peck, and J. M. Bennett, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 675 (1969).

Dietz, Ralph W.

Ralph W. Dietz and Jean M. Bennett, Appl. Opt. 5, 881 (1966).

Fedders, P. A.

P. A. Fedders, Phys. Rev. 165, 580 (1968); R. H. Ritchie and R. E. Wilems, Phys. Rev. 178, 372 (1969).

Ferrell, R. A.

E. A. Stern and R. A. Ferrell, Phys. Rev. 120, 130 (1960).

R. A. Ferrell, Phys. Rev. 111, 1214 (1958).

Hunderi, O.

O. Hunderi and D. Beaglehole, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 14, 26 (1969).

Jasperson, S. N.

S. N. Jasperson and S. E. Schnatterly, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 12, 399 (1967).

Kloos, T.

T. Kloos, Z. Physik 208, 77 (1968).

Otto, A.

A. Otto, Z. Physik 185, 232 (1965).

Peck, R. L.

D. K. Burge, J. M. Bennett, R. L. Peck, and H. E. Bennett, in Proceedings of tIe Conference on Recent Developments in Ellipsonetry, Surface Sci. 16, 303 (1969).

H. E. Bennett, R. L. Peck, D. K. Burge, and J. M. Bennett, J. Appl. Phys. 40, 3351 (1969).

H. E. Bennett, D. K. Burge, R. L. Peck, and J. M. Bennett, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 675 (1969).

Porteus, J. O.

H. E. Bennett and J. O. Porteus, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 123 (1961).

Raether, H.

H. Raether, Surface Sci. 8, 233 (1967).

Ritchie, R. H.

R. H. Ritchie, Surface Sci. 3, 497 (1965).

Roberts, J. F.

H. E. Bennett and J. F. Roberts, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 568A (1964)

Schnatterly, S. E.

S. N. Jasperson and S. E. Schnatterly, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 12, 399 (1967).

Stanford, J. L.

J. M. Bennett, J. L. Stanford, and E. J. Ashley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 499A (1969).

J. L. Stanford, H. E. Bennett, J. M. Bennett, E. J. Ashley, and E. T. Arakawa, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 13, 989 (1968).

Stern, E. A.

E. A. Stern and R. A. Ferrell, Phys. Rev. 120, 130 (1960).

Y. Teng and E. A. Stern, Phys. Rev. Letters 19, 511 (1967).

E. A. Stern, in Optical Properties and Electronic Structure of Metals and Alloys, F. Abelès, Ed. (North-Holland Publ. Co., Amsterdam, 1966), p. 396.

Teng, Y.

Y. Teng and E. A. Stern, Phys. Rev. Letters 19, 511 (1967).

Other (22)

H. E. Bennett and J. M. Bennett, in Physics of Thin Films, G. Hass and R. E. Thun, Eds. (Academic Press Inc., New York, 1967), Vol. 4, pp. 37–41.

H. E. Bennett, D. K. Burge, R. L. Peck, and J. M. Bennett, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 675 (1969).

H. Raether, Surface Sci. 8, 233 (1967).

T. Kloos, Z. Physik 208, 77 (1968).

S. N. Jasperson and S. E. Schnatterly, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 12, 399 (1967).

J. L. Stanford, H. E. Bennett, J. M. Bennett, E. J. Ashley, and E. T. Arakawa, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 13, 989 (1968).

O. Hunderi and D. Beaglehole, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 14, 26 (1969).

R. A. Ferrell, Phys. Rev. 111, 1214 (1958).

E. A. Stern and R. A. Ferrell, Phys. Rev. 120, 130 (1960).

R. H. Ritchie, Surface Sci. 3, 497 (1965).

E. A. Stern, in Optical Properties and Electronic Structure of Metals and Alloys, F. Abelès, Ed. (North-Holland Publ. Co., Amsterdam, 1966), p. 396.

Y. Teng and E. A. Stern, Phys. Rev. Letters 19, 511 (1967).

P. A. Fedders, Phys. Rev. 165, 580 (1968); R. H. Ritchie and R. E. Wilems, Phys. Rev. 178, 372 (1969).

A. Otto, Z. Physik 185, 232 (1965).

The values used were obtained from the highest measured reflectance from smooth, freshly evaporated silver films. These values differ only slightly from those of Huebner et al. [R. H. Huebner, E. T. Arakawa, R. A. MacRae, and R. N. Hamm, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 1434 (1964).]

Ralph W. Dietz and Jean M. Bennett, Appl. Opt. 5, 881 (1966).

H. E. Bennett and J. F. Roberts, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 568A (1964)

D. K. Burge, J. M. Bennett, R. L. Peck, and H. E. Bennett, in Proceedings of tIe Conference on Recent Developments in Ellipsonetry, Surface Sci. 16, 303 (1969).

See Ref. 1, pp. 17–18.

H. E. Bennett and J. O. Porteus, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 123 (1961).

J. M. Bennett, J. L. Stanford, and E. J. Ashley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 499A (1969).

H. E. Bennett, R. L. Peck, D. K. Burge, and J. M. Bennett, J. Appl. Phys. 40, 3351 (1969).

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