Abstract

The most severe problems in the recording of x-ray holograms have been overcome and the investigation of Fraunhofer holograms extended to the x-ray region. An in-line Fraunhofer hologram was made of a 5.9-µ-diam, glass fiber using beryllium x rays (114 Å) produced in a scanning electron-probe microanalyzer. A magnified real image of the fiber was reconstructed from the negative hologram using He-Ne laser light. A lateral magnification of approximately 9X was obtained in the two-step imaging process. An analysis of the x-ray source, recorded hologram, and reconstructed real image is presented.

© 1969 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. V. Baez and H. M. A. El-Sum, in X-Ray Microscopy and Microradiography, V. E. Cosslett, A. Engström, and H. H. Pattee, Jr., Eds. (Academic Press Inc., New York, 1957), pp. 347–366.
  2. J. T. Winthrop, Doctoral Dissertation, University of Michigan (1966).
  3. D. Gabor, Nature 161, 777 (1948).
  4. D. Gabor, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A197, 454 (1949).
  5. D. Gabor, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) B64, 449 (1951).
  6. B. J. Thompson, Japan J. Appl. Phys. Suppl. I 4, 302 (1965).
  7. J. B. DeVelis and G. O. Reynolds, Theory and Applications of Holography (Addison-Wesley Publ. Co., Reading, Mass., 1967), pp. 43–48, 73.
  8. B. J. Thompson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 1350 (1963).
  9. J. B. DeVelis, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 1407 (1964).
  10. G. B. Parrent, Jr. and B. J. Thompson, Opt. Acta 11, 183 (1964).
  11. J. B. DeVelis, G. B. Parrent, Jr., and B. J. Thompson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 424 (1966).
  12. H. M. A. El-Sum, doctoral dissertation, Stanford University (1952).
  13. A. V. Baez, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 756 (1952).
  14. G. Kellström, Nova Acta Soc. Sci. Upsal. 8, 60 (1932).
  15. H. M. A. El-Sum and A. V. Baez, Phys. Rev. 99, 624 (1955).
  16. H. M. El-Sum and P. Kirkpatrick, Phys. Rev. 85, 763 (1952).
  17. P. Kirkpatrick and H. H. Pattee, Jr., in Handbuch der Physik, Vol. 30, S. Flügge, Ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1957), p. 320.
  18. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon Press, Inc., New York, 1965), 3rd ed., p. 384.
  19. S. Silver, in Microwave Antenna Theory and Design, S. Silver, Ed. (McGraw—Hill Book Co., New York, 1949), p. 199.
  20. A. Sommerfeld, Optics, Lectures on Theoretical Physics, Vol. IV (Academic Press Inc., New York, 1954), p. 195.
  21. V. E. Cosslett, Modern Microscopy (Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York, 1966), pp. 139–156.
  22. P. Duncumb, in The Encyclopedia of Spectroscopy, G. L. Clark, Ed. (Reinhold Publ. Corp., New York, 1960), pp. 768–776; in The Encyclopedia of X Rays and Gamma Rays, G. L. Clark, Ed. (Reinhold Publ. Corp., New York, 1963), pp. 818–824; Brit. J. Appl. Phys. 11, 169 (1960).
  23. J. W. Giles, Jr., J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 778 (1969).
  24. B. L. Henke, in Advances in X-Ray Analysis, G. R. Mallett, M. Fay, and W. M. Mueller, Eds. (Plenum Press, Inc., New York, 1966), Vol. 9, pp. 430–439.
  25. J. A. Bearden, Rev. Mod. Phys. 39, 48 (1967).
  26. R. Theisen, Quantitative Electron Microprobe Analysis (Springer-Verlag, Inc., New York, 1965), p. 9.
  27. P. Duncumb and P. K. Shields, in The Electron Microprobe, T. D. McKinley, K. F. J. Heinrich, and D. B. Wittry, Eds. (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1966), p. 284.
  28. Reference 26, p. 15.
  29. H. M. O'Bryan and H. W. B. Skinner, Phys. Rev. 44, 602 (1933); Phys. Rev. 45, 371 (1934).
  30. H. W. B. Skinner, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. (London), Ser. A 239, 95 (1940).
  31. D. H. Tomboulian, in Handbuch der Physik, Vol. 30, S. Flügge, Ed. (Springer—Verlag, Berlin, 1957), p. 273.
  32. S. T. Stephenson and F. D. Mason, Phys. Rev. 75, 1711 (1949).
  33. B. D. Cullity, Elements of X-Ray Diffraction (Addison-Wesley Publ. Co., Reading, Mass., 1956), p. 6.
  34. A. J. Campbell, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London), Ser. A 274, 319 (1963).
  35. L. L. Birks, Electron Probe Microanalysis (Wiley—Interscience, Inc., New York, 1963), p. 133.
  36. N. Swanson and K. Codling, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 1192 (1968).
  37. G. L. Clark, Applied X Rays (McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 1955), 4th ed., p. 115.
  38. H. P. Klug and L. E. Alexander, X-Ray Diffraction Procedures for Polycrystalline and Amorphous Materials (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1954), pp. 87–88.
  39. R. Witty and P. Wood, Nature 163, 323 (1949).
  40. R. D. Evans, The Atomic Nucleus (McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 1955), p. 565; E. H. S. Burhop, The Auger Effect and Other Radiationless Transitions (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1952).
  41. See Ref. 18, p. 319; M. Francon, Diffraction (Pergamon Press, Inc., New York, 1966), p. 60; Optical Interferometry (Academic Press Inc., New York, 1966), p. 10.
  42. Reference 7, pp. 123–124.
  43. A. V. Baez, Nature 169, 963 (1952).
  44. M. E. Haine and T. Mulvey, Nature 170, 202 (1952).
  45. G. W. Stroke and D. G. Falconer, Phys. Letters 13, 306 (1964).
  46. E. N. Leith, J. Upatnieks, and K. A. Haines, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 981 (1965).
  47. C. C. Eaglesfield, Electronics Letters 1, 181 (1965).
  48. J. A. Armstrong, IBM J. Res. Develop. 9, 171 (1965).
  49. G. W. Stroke, An Introduction to Coherent Optics and Holography (Academic Press Inc., New York, 1966), pp. 114–116.
  50. F. I. Diamond, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 503 (1967).
  51. Reference 12 p. 78
  52. B. L. Henke, R. L. Elgin, R. E. Lent, and R. B. Ledingham, Norelco Reporter 14, 112 (1967).
  53. For a discussion of total reflection of x rays see, V. E. Cosslett and W. C. Nixon. X-Ray Microscopy (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England, 1960), pp. 87–91.
  54. See, A. Messiah, Quantum Mechanics, Vol. II, (North-Holland Publ. Co., Amsterdam, 1962), p. 1015.
  55. Reference 31, p. 265.
  56. G. Sprague, D. H. Tomboulian, and D. E. Bedo, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 756 (1955).
  57. G. L. Johnson and R. F. Wuerker, in X-Ray Optics and X-Ray Microanalysis, H. H. Pattee, Jr., V. E. Cosslett, and A. Engström, Eds. (Academic Press Inc., New York, 1963), pp. 229–239.
  58. G. L. Johnson, doctoral dissertation, Stanford University (1962).
  59. F. Zernike, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 61, 147 (1948).
  60. Reference 7, p. 71.
  61. Reference 35, pp. 134–135.
  62. A. Franks, Nature 201, 913 (1964).
  63. A. V. Baez, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 405 (1961).
  64. G. Möllenstedt, K. H. von Grote, and C. Jönsson, in Ref. 57, pp. 73–79.
  65. G. W. Stroke, D. Brumm, A. Funkhouser, and R. Restrick III, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 1566A (1965).
  66. G. W. Stroke, Appl. Phys. Letters 6, 201 (1965).
  67. J. T. Winthrop and C. R. Worthington, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1362 (1966).
  68. J. T. Winthrop and C. R. Worthington, Phys. Letters 15, 124 (1965).
  69. G. W. Stroke, D. Brumm, and A. Funkhouser, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 1327 (1965).
  70. J. T. Winthrop and C. R. Worthington, Phys. Letters 21, 413 (1966).

Alexander, L. E.

H. P. Klug and L. E. Alexander, X-Ray Diffraction Procedures for Polycrystalline and Amorphous Materials (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1954), pp. 87–88.

Armstrong, J. A.

J. A. Armstrong, IBM J. Res. Develop. 9, 171 (1965).

Baez, A. V.

A. V. Baez, Nature 169, 963 (1952).

A. V. Baez and H. M. A. El-Sum, in X-Ray Microscopy and Microradiography, V. E. Cosslett, A. Engström, and H. H. Pattee, Jr., Eds. (Academic Press Inc., New York, 1957), pp. 347–366.

A. V. Baez, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 756 (1952).

H. M. A. El-Sum and A. V. Baez, Phys. Rev. 99, 624 (1955).

A. V. Baez, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 405 (1961).

Bearden, J. A.

J. A. Bearden, Rev. Mod. Phys. 39, 48 (1967).

Bedo, D. E.

G. Sprague, D. H. Tomboulian, and D. E. Bedo, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 756 (1955).

Birks, L. L.

L. L. Birks, Electron Probe Microanalysis (Wiley—Interscience, Inc., New York, 1963), p. 133.

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon Press, Inc., New York, 1965), 3rd ed., p. 384.

Brumm, D.

G. W. Stroke, D. Brumm, A. Funkhouser, and R. Restrick III, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 1566A (1965).

G. W. Stroke, D. Brumm, and A. Funkhouser, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 1327 (1965).

Campbell, A. J.

A. J. Campbell, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London), Ser. A 274, 319 (1963).

Clark, G. L.

G. L. Clark, Applied X Rays (McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 1955), 4th ed., p. 115.

Codling, K.

N. Swanson and K. Codling, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 1192 (1968).

Cosslett, V. E.

V. E. Cosslett, Modern Microscopy (Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York, 1966), pp. 139–156.

For a discussion of total reflection of x rays see, V. E. Cosslett and W. C. Nixon. X-Ray Microscopy (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England, 1960), pp. 87–91.

Cullity, B. D.

B. D. Cullity, Elements of X-Ray Diffraction (Addison-Wesley Publ. Co., Reading, Mass., 1956), p. 6.

DeVelis, J. B.

J. B. DeVelis, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 1407 (1964).

J. B. DeVelis, G. B. Parrent, Jr., and B. J. Thompson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 424 (1966).

J. B. DeVelis and G. O. Reynolds, Theory and Applications of Holography (Addison-Wesley Publ. Co., Reading, Mass., 1967), pp. 43–48, 73.

Diamond, F. I.

F. I. Diamond, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 503 (1967).

Duncumb, P.

P. Duncumb, in The Encyclopedia of Spectroscopy, G. L. Clark, Ed. (Reinhold Publ. Corp., New York, 1960), pp. 768–776; in The Encyclopedia of X Rays and Gamma Rays, G. L. Clark, Ed. (Reinhold Publ. Corp., New York, 1963), pp. 818–824; Brit. J. Appl. Phys. 11, 169 (1960).

P. Duncumb and P. K. Shields, in The Electron Microprobe, T. D. McKinley, K. F. J. Heinrich, and D. B. Wittry, Eds. (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1966), p. 284.

Eaglesfield, C. C.

C. C. Eaglesfield, Electronics Letters 1, 181 (1965).

Elgin, R. L.

B. L. Henke, R. L. Elgin, R. E. Lent, and R. B. Ledingham, Norelco Reporter 14, 112 (1967).

El-Sum, H. M.

H. M. El-Sum and P. Kirkpatrick, Phys. Rev. 85, 763 (1952).

El-Sum, H. M. A.

A. V. Baez and H. M. A. El-Sum, in X-Ray Microscopy and Microradiography, V. E. Cosslett, A. Engström, and H. H. Pattee, Jr., Eds. (Academic Press Inc., New York, 1957), pp. 347–366.

H. M. A. El-Sum, doctoral dissertation, Stanford University (1952).

H. M. A. El-Sum and A. V. Baez, Phys. Rev. 99, 624 (1955).

Evans, R. D.

R. D. Evans, The Atomic Nucleus (McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 1955), p. 565; E. H. S. Burhop, The Auger Effect and Other Radiationless Transitions (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1952).

Falconer, D. G.

G. W. Stroke and D. G. Falconer, Phys. Letters 13, 306 (1964).

Francon, M.

See Ref. 18, p. 319; M. Francon, Diffraction (Pergamon Press, Inc., New York, 1966), p. 60; Optical Interferometry (Academic Press Inc., New York, 1966), p. 10.

Franks, A.

A. Franks, Nature 201, 913 (1964).

Funkhouser, A.

G. W. Stroke, D. Brumm, and A. Funkhouser, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 1327 (1965).

G. W. Stroke, D. Brumm, A. Funkhouser, and R. Restrick III, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 1566A (1965).

Gabor, D.

D. Gabor, Nature 161, 777 (1948).

D. Gabor, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A197, 454 (1949).

D. Gabor, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) B64, 449 (1951).

Giles, Jr., J. W.

J. W. Giles, Jr., J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 778 (1969).

Haine, M. E.

M. E. Haine and T. Mulvey, Nature 170, 202 (1952).

Haines, K. A.

E. N. Leith, J. Upatnieks, and K. A. Haines, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 981 (1965).

Henke, B. L.

B. L. Henke, R. L. Elgin, R. E. Lent, and R. B. Ledingham, Norelco Reporter 14, 112 (1967).

B. L. Henke, in Advances in X-Ray Analysis, G. R. Mallett, M. Fay, and W. M. Mueller, Eds. (Plenum Press, Inc., New York, 1966), Vol. 9, pp. 430–439.

III, R. Restrick

G. W. Stroke, D. Brumm, A. Funkhouser, and R. Restrick III, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 1566A (1965).

Johnson, G. L.

G. L. Johnson and R. F. Wuerker, in X-Ray Optics and X-Ray Microanalysis, H. H. Pattee, Jr., V. E. Cosslett, and A. Engström, Eds. (Academic Press Inc., New York, 1963), pp. 229–239.

G. L. Johnson, doctoral dissertation, Stanford University (1962).

Jönsson, C.

G. Möllenstedt, K. H. von Grote, and C. Jönsson, in Ref. 57, pp. 73–79.

Kellström, G.

G. Kellström, Nova Acta Soc. Sci. Upsal. 8, 60 (1932).

Kirkpatrick, P.

H. M. El-Sum and P. Kirkpatrick, Phys. Rev. 85, 763 (1952).

P. Kirkpatrick and H. H. Pattee, Jr., in Handbuch der Physik, Vol. 30, S. Flügge, Ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1957), p. 320.

Klug, H. P.

H. P. Klug and L. E. Alexander, X-Ray Diffraction Procedures for Polycrystalline and Amorphous Materials (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1954), pp. 87–88.

Ledingham, R. B.

B. L. Henke, R. L. Elgin, R. E. Lent, and R. B. Ledingham, Norelco Reporter 14, 112 (1967).

Leith, E. N.

E. N. Leith, J. Upatnieks, and K. A. Haines, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 981 (1965).

Lent, R. E.

B. L. Henke, R. L. Elgin, R. E. Lent, and R. B. Ledingham, Norelco Reporter 14, 112 (1967).

Mason, F. D.

S. T. Stephenson and F. D. Mason, Phys. Rev. 75, 1711 (1949).

Messiah, A.

See, A. Messiah, Quantum Mechanics, Vol. II, (North-Holland Publ. Co., Amsterdam, 1962), p. 1015.

Möllenstedt, G.

G. Möllenstedt, K. H. von Grote, and C. Jönsson, in Ref. 57, pp. 73–79.

Mulvey, T.

M. E. Haine and T. Mulvey, Nature 170, 202 (1952).

Nixon, W. C.

For a discussion of total reflection of x rays see, V. E. Cosslett and W. C. Nixon. X-Ray Microscopy (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England, 1960), pp. 87–91.

O’Bryan, H. M.

H. M. O'Bryan and H. W. B. Skinner, Phys. Rev. 44, 602 (1933); Phys. Rev. 45, 371 (1934).

Parrent, Jr., G. B.

J. B. DeVelis, G. B. Parrent, Jr., and B. J. Thompson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 424 (1966).

G. B. Parrent, Jr. and B. J. Thompson, Opt. Acta 11, 183 (1964).

Pattee, Jr., H. H.

P. Kirkpatrick and H. H. Pattee, Jr., in Handbuch der Physik, Vol. 30, S. Flügge, Ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1957), p. 320.

Reynolds, G. O.

J. B. DeVelis and G. O. Reynolds, Theory and Applications of Holography (Addison-Wesley Publ. Co., Reading, Mass., 1967), pp. 43–48, 73.

Shields, P. K.

P. Duncumb and P. K. Shields, in The Electron Microprobe, T. D. McKinley, K. F. J. Heinrich, and D. B. Wittry, Eds. (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1966), p. 284.

Silver, S.

S. Silver, in Microwave Antenna Theory and Design, S. Silver, Ed. (McGraw—Hill Book Co., New York, 1949), p. 199.

Skinner, H. W. B.

H. M. O'Bryan and H. W. B. Skinner, Phys. Rev. 44, 602 (1933); Phys. Rev. 45, 371 (1934).

H. W. B. Skinner, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. (London), Ser. A 239, 95 (1940).

Sommerfeld, A.

A. Sommerfeld, Optics, Lectures on Theoretical Physics, Vol. IV (Academic Press Inc., New York, 1954), p. 195.

Sprague, G.

G. Sprague, D. H. Tomboulian, and D. E. Bedo, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 756 (1955).

Stephenson, S. T.

S. T. Stephenson and F. D. Mason, Phys. Rev. 75, 1711 (1949).

Stroke, G. W.

G. W. Stroke and D. G. Falconer, Phys. Letters 13, 306 (1964).

G. W. Stroke, An Introduction to Coherent Optics and Holography (Academic Press Inc., New York, 1966), pp. 114–116.

G. W. Stroke, D. Brumm, A. Funkhouser, and R. Restrick III, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 1566A (1965).

G. W. Stroke, Appl. Phys. Letters 6, 201 (1965).

G. W. Stroke, D. Brumm, and A. Funkhouser, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 1327 (1965).

Swanson, N.

N. Swanson and K. Codling, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 1192 (1968).

Theisen, R.

R. Theisen, Quantitative Electron Microprobe Analysis (Springer-Verlag, Inc., New York, 1965), p. 9.

Thompson, B. J.

B. J. Thompson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 1350 (1963).

B. J. Thompson, Japan J. Appl. Phys. Suppl. I 4, 302 (1965).

G. B. Parrent, Jr. and B. J. Thompson, Opt. Acta 11, 183 (1964).

J. B. DeVelis, G. B. Parrent, Jr., and B. J. Thompson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 424 (1966).

Tomboulian, D. H.

D. H. Tomboulian, in Handbuch der Physik, Vol. 30, S. Flügge, Ed. (Springer—Verlag, Berlin, 1957), p. 273.

G. Sprague, D. H. Tomboulian, and D. E. Bedo, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 756 (1955).

Upatnieks, J.

E. N. Leith, J. Upatnieks, and K. A. Haines, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 981 (1965).

von Grote, K. H.

G. Möllenstedt, K. H. von Grote, and C. Jönsson, in Ref. 57, pp. 73–79.

Winthrop, J. T.

J. T. Winthrop and C. R. Worthington, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1362 (1966).

J. T. Winthrop and C. R. Worthington, Phys. Letters 15, 124 (1965).

J. T. Winthrop and C. R. Worthington, Phys. Letters 21, 413 (1966).

J. T. Winthrop, Doctoral Dissertation, University of Michigan (1966).

Witty, R.

R. Witty and P. Wood, Nature 163, 323 (1949).

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon Press, Inc., New York, 1965), 3rd ed., p. 384.

Wood, P.

R. Witty and P. Wood, Nature 163, 323 (1949).

Worthington, C. R.

J. T. Winthrop and C. R. Worthington, Phys. Letters 21, 413 (1966).

J. T. Winthrop and C. R. Worthington, Phys. Letters 15, 124 (1965).

J. T. Winthrop and C. R. Worthington, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1362 (1966).

Wuerker, R. F.

G. L. Johnson and R. F. Wuerker, in X-Ray Optics and X-Ray Microanalysis, H. H. Pattee, Jr., V. E. Cosslett, and A. Engström, Eds. (Academic Press Inc., New York, 1963), pp. 229–239.

Zernike, F.

F. Zernike, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 61, 147 (1948).

Other (70)

A. V. Baez and H. M. A. El-Sum, in X-Ray Microscopy and Microradiography, V. E. Cosslett, A. Engström, and H. H. Pattee, Jr., Eds. (Academic Press Inc., New York, 1957), pp. 347–366.

J. T. Winthrop, Doctoral Dissertation, University of Michigan (1966).

D. Gabor, Nature 161, 777 (1948).

D. Gabor, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A197, 454 (1949).

D. Gabor, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) B64, 449 (1951).

B. J. Thompson, Japan J. Appl. Phys. Suppl. I 4, 302 (1965).

J. B. DeVelis and G. O. Reynolds, Theory and Applications of Holography (Addison-Wesley Publ. Co., Reading, Mass., 1967), pp. 43–48, 73.

B. J. Thompson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 1350 (1963).

J. B. DeVelis, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 1407 (1964).

G. B. Parrent, Jr. and B. J. Thompson, Opt. Acta 11, 183 (1964).

J. B. DeVelis, G. B. Parrent, Jr., and B. J. Thompson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 424 (1966).

H. M. A. El-Sum, doctoral dissertation, Stanford University (1952).

A. V. Baez, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 756 (1952).

G. Kellström, Nova Acta Soc. Sci. Upsal. 8, 60 (1932).

H. M. A. El-Sum and A. V. Baez, Phys. Rev. 99, 624 (1955).

H. M. El-Sum and P. Kirkpatrick, Phys. Rev. 85, 763 (1952).

P. Kirkpatrick and H. H. Pattee, Jr., in Handbuch der Physik, Vol. 30, S. Flügge, Ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1957), p. 320.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon Press, Inc., New York, 1965), 3rd ed., p. 384.

S. Silver, in Microwave Antenna Theory and Design, S. Silver, Ed. (McGraw—Hill Book Co., New York, 1949), p. 199.

A. Sommerfeld, Optics, Lectures on Theoretical Physics, Vol. IV (Academic Press Inc., New York, 1954), p. 195.

V. E. Cosslett, Modern Microscopy (Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York, 1966), pp. 139–156.

P. Duncumb, in The Encyclopedia of Spectroscopy, G. L. Clark, Ed. (Reinhold Publ. Corp., New York, 1960), pp. 768–776; in The Encyclopedia of X Rays and Gamma Rays, G. L. Clark, Ed. (Reinhold Publ. Corp., New York, 1963), pp. 818–824; Brit. J. Appl. Phys. 11, 169 (1960).

J. W. Giles, Jr., J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 778 (1969).

B. L. Henke, in Advances in X-Ray Analysis, G. R. Mallett, M. Fay, and W. M. Mueller, Eds. (Plenum Press, Inc., New York, 1966), Vol. 9, pp. 430–439.

J. A. Bearden, Rev. Mod. Phys. 39, 48 (1967).

R. Theisen, Quantitative Electron Microprobe Analysis (Springer-Verlag, Inc., New York, 1965), p. 9.

P. Duncumb and P. K. Shields, in The Electron Microprobe, T. D. McKinley, K. F. J. Heinrich, and D. B. Wittry, Eds. (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1966), p. 284.

Reference 26, p. 15.

H. M. O'Bryan and H. W. B. Skinner, Phys. Rev. 44, 602 (1933); Phys. Rev. 45, 371 (1934).

H. W. B. Skinner, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. (London), Ser. A 239, 95 (1940).

D. H. Tomboulian, in Handbuch der Physik, Vol. 30, S. Flügge, Ed. (Springer—Verlag, Berlin, 1957), p. 273.

S. T. Stephenson and F. D. Mason, Phys. Rev. 75, 1711 (1949).

B. D. Cullity, Elements of X-Ray Diffraction (Addison-Wesley Publ. Co., Reading, Mass., 1956), p. 6.

A. J. Campbell, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London), Ser. A 274, 319 (1963).

L. L. Birks, Electron Probe Microanalysis (Wiley—Interscience, Inc., New York, 1963), p. 133.

N. Swanson and K. Codling, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 1192 (1968).

G. L. Clark, Applied X Rays (McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 1955), 4th ed., p. 115.

H. P. Klug and L. E. Alexander, X-Ray Diffraction Procedures for Polycrystalline and Amorphous Materials (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1954), pp. 87–88.

R. Witty and P. Wood, Nature 163, 323 (1949).

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