Abstract

The visibility of various colors underwater with artificial illumination has been measured in three different bodies of water chosen to sample a continuum from clear to turbid. Subjects were Scuba divers who observed the colors at night, using a mercury or an incandescent light source. The visibility results show numerous interactions among color, fluorescence, type of light source, and type of water; from them, it is possible to select the optimum combination to be used under a wide variety of conditions.

© 1969 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. A. S. Kinney, S. M. Luria, and D. O. Weitzman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 802 (1967).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. E. O. Hulburt, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 13, 553 (1926); G. L. Clarke and H. R. James, 29, 43 (1939); R. C. Smith and J. E. Tyler, 57, 589 (1967); J. E. Tyler and R. C. Smith, 57, 595 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  3. E. Tyler, Limnol. Oceanog.LV(1), 102 (1959).
    [CrossRef]

1967 (1)

1959 (1)

E. Tyler, Limnol. Oceanog.LV(1), 102 (1959).
[CrossRef]

1926 (1)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Spectral transmittance of 1 m of each of the bodies of water.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

CIE chromaticity diagram showing the color appearance of the light from tungsten source, ●, and mercury source, ■, after filtering by 2 m of the Thames River and by 10 m of the Caribbean Sea. Small • and ♦ represent chromaticities of those sources in air. CIE illuminants A and C are shown by points thus labelled.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The percent of each of the colors correctly identified by divers with the incandescent light source. (Fluorescent colors ×——×; regular paint ● — — — ●).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The percent of each of the colors correctly identified by divers with the mercury light source. (Fluorescent colors ×——×; regular paint ● — — — ●).

Tables (5)

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Table I Specifications of paint samples.

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Table II Specifications of various bodies of water.

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Table III Percent of the neutral colors seen in various waters.

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Table IV The color names employed by divers using the tungsten lamp.

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Table V The color names employed by divers using the mercury lamp.