Abstract

A shift of the peak of the Stiles-Crawford effect suggests that saccades shear the retina. This action appears to lead to an increase of the retinal activity of a real-light background. Thus, thresholds following a saccade are raised the most for test wavelengths which are most similar to the adapting-field wavelength. If the adapting field is eliminated, saccadic suppression is reduced. Saccades also affect the customary rises of thresholds found near the onset and extinction of the adapting field. This effect is as if the retinal feedback loop underlying adaptation is disrupted by the saccade.

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  1. P. L. Latour, Vision Res. 2, 261 (1962).
  2. B. L. Zuber and L. Stark, Exptl. Neurol. 16, 65 (1966).
  3. F. C. Volkmann, A. M. L. Schick, and L. A. Riggs, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 562 (1968).
  4. P. L. Latour, "Cortical Control of Eye Movement," thesis, Institute for Perception RVO-TNO, Soesterberg, The Netherlands (1966).
  5. H.-L. Teuber, in Handbook of Physiology, Vol. III, Neurophysiology, J. Field, Ed. (American Physiological Society, Washington, D. C., 1960), p. 1595.
  6. E. B. Holt, Harvard Psychol. Stud. I, 3 (1903).
  7. W. Richards, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 1159 (1968).
  8. Note also the phosphene of quick eye motion reported by B. Nebel, Arch. Ophthalmol. 58, 236 (1957).
  9. L. Stark, G. Vossius, and L. R. Young, IRE Trans. HFE-3, 52 (1962).
  10. B. H. Crawford, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B134, 283 (1947).
  11. H. B. Barlow and J. M. B. Sparrock, Science 144, 1309 (1964).
  12. W. A. H. Rushton, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B162, 20 (1965).
  13. J. E. Dowling, Science 155, 273 (1967).
  14. R. M. Chapman, Vision Res. 2, 89 (1962); R. A. Cone, J. Gen. Physiol. 47, 1089 (1964).
  15. Note also the characteristic secondary decrease of the threshold near 180 to 200 msec equivalent to 50 or 70 msec prior to the beginning of the return saccade. This decrease has also been reported by others.1–4 We propose that the peak and valley preceding the eye movement reflect neural disinhibition or the Broca-Sulzer phenomenon, whereas those decreases that occur after a single eye movement are due to retinal (or vitreous) oscillations.
  16. H. D. Baker, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 172 (1949); 53, 98 (1963).
  17. R. M. Boynton, Arch. Ophthalmol. 60, 800 (1958).
  18. F. Ratliff, H. K. Hartline, and W. H. Miller, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 110(1963).
  19. G. Westheimer, J. Physiol. (London) 190, 139 (1967).

Baker, H. D.

H. D. Baker, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 172 (1949); 53, 98 (1963).

Barlow, H. B.

H. B. Barlow and J. M. B. Sparrock, Science 144, 1309 (1964).

Boynton, R. M.

R. M. Boynton, Arch. Ophthalmol. 60, 800 (1958).

Chapman, R. M.

R. M. Chapman, Vision Res. 2, 89 (1962); R. A. Cone, J. Gen. Physiol. 47, 1089 (1964).

Crawford, B. H.

B. H. Crawford, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B134, 283 (1947).

Dowling, J. E.

J. E. Dowling, Science 155, 273 (1967).

Hartline, H. K.

F. Ratliff, H. K. Hartline, and W. H. Miller, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 110(1963).

Holt, E. B.

E. B. Holt, Harvard Psychol. Stud. I, 3 (1903).

Latour, P. L.

P. L. Latour, "Cortical Control of Eye Movement," thesis, Institute for Perception RVO-TNO, Soesterberg, The Netherlands (1966).

P. L. Latour, Vision Res. 2, 261 (1962).

Miller, W. H.

F. Ratliff, H. K. Hartline, and W. H. Miller, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 110(1963).

Nebel, B.

Note also the phosphene of quick eye motion reported by B. Nebel, Arch. Ophthalmol. 58, 236 (1957).

Ratliff, F.

F. Ratliff, H. K. Hartline, and W. H. Miller, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 110(1963).

Richards, W.

W. Richards, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 1159 (1968).

Riggs, L. A.

F. C. Volkmann, A. M. L. Schick, and L. A. Riggs, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 562 (1968).

Rushton, W. A. H.

W. A. H. Rushton, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B162, 20 (1965).

Schick, A. M. L.

F. C. Volkmann, A. M. L. Schick, and L. A. Riggs, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 562 (1968).

Sparrock, J. M. B.

H. B. Barlow and J. M. B. Sparrock, Science 144, 1309 (1964).

Stark, L.

L. Stark, G. Vossius, and L. R. Young, IRE Trans. HFE-3, 52 (1962).

B. L. Zuber and L. Stark, Exptl. Neurol. 16, 65 (1966).

Teuber, H.-L.

H.-L. Teuber, in Handbook of Physiology, Vol. III, Neurophysiology, J. Field, Ed. (American Physiological Society, Washington, D. C., 1960), p. 1595.

Volkmann, F. C.

F. C. Volkmann, A. M. L. Schick, and L. A. Riggs, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 562 (1968).

Vossius, G.

L. Stark, G. Vossius, and L. R. Young, IRE Trans. HFE-3, 52 (1962).

Westheimer, G.

G. Westheimer, J. Physiol. (London) 190, 139 (1967).

Young, L. R.

L. Stark, G. Vossius, and L. R. Young, IRE Trans. HFE-3, 52 (1962).

Zuber, B. L.

B. L. Zuber and L. Stark, Exptl. Neurol. 16, 65 (1966).

Other

P. L. Latour, Vision Res. 2, 261 (1962).

B. L. Zuber and L. Stark, Exptl. Neurol. 16, 65 (1966).

F. C. Volkmann, A. M. L. Schick, and L. A. Riggs, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 562 (1968).

P. L. Latour, "Cortical Control of Eye Movement," thesis, Institute for Perception RVO-TNO, Soesterberg, The Netherlands (1966).

H.-L. Teuber, in Handbook of Physiology, Vol. III, Neurophysiology, J. Field, Ed. (American Physiological Society, Washington, D. C., 1960), p. 1595.

E. B. Holt, Harvard Psychol. Stud. I, 3 (1903).

W. Richards, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 1159 (1968).

Note also the phosphene of quick eye motion reported by B. Nebel, Arch. Ophthalmol. 58, 236 (1957).

L. Stark, G. Vossius, and L. R. Young, IRE Trans. HFE-3, 52 (1962).

B. H. Crawford, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B134, 283 (1947).

H. B. Barlow and J. M. B. Sparrock, Science 144, 1309 (1964).

W. A. H. Rushton, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B162, 20 (1965).

J. E. Dowling, Science 155, 273 (1967).

R. M. Chapman, Vision Res. 2, 89 (1962); R. A. Cone, J. Gen. Physiol. 47, 1089 (1964).

Note also the characteristic secondary decrease of the threshold near 180 to 200 msec equivalent to 50 or 70 msec prior to the beginning of the return saccade. This decrease has also been reported by others.1–4 We propose that the peak and valley preceding the eye movement reflect neural disinhibition or the Broca-Sulzer phenomenon, whereas those decreases that occur after a single eye movement are due to retinal (or vitreous) oscillations.

H. D. Baker, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 172 (1949); 53, 98 (1963).

R. M. Boynton, Arch. Ophthalmol. 60, 800 (1958).

F. Ratliff, H. K. Hartline, and W. H. Miller, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 110(1963).

G. Westheimer, J. Physiol. (London) 190, 139 (1967).

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