Abstract

The optical absorption spectra of 1% Gd:LaBr3, 5% Gd:LaCl3, GdCl3, 2% Gd:Y(OH)3 and Gd(OH)3 at 1.5 K in high resolution are given over the region 31 000 cm−1 to 41 000 cm−1. Reduced matrix elements based on intermediate-coupling free-ion calculations are used to perform a crystal-field analysis for Gd3+ in a 6¯(C3h) symmetry electrostatic field. A least-squares fit to levels in each crystal has led to the assignment of M quantum numbers to most levels and of Bkq parameters to each crystalline host.

© 1969 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. G. H. Dieke and L. Leopold, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 944 (1957); K. H. Hellwege, S. Hufner, and H. Schmidt, Z. Physik 172, 460 (1963).
    [Crossref]
  2. L. Leopold, Ph.D. dissertation, The Johns Hopkins University (1958).
  3. A. H. Piksis, G. H. Dieke, and H. M. Crosswhite, J. Chem. Phys. 47, 5083 (1967).
    [Crossref]
  4. G. H. Dieke, in Spectra and Energy Levels of Rare Earth Ions in Crystals, H. M. Crosswhite and Hannah Crosswhite, Eds. (Interscience Publishers, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1968), p. 249 ff.
  5. G. H. Dieke, D. Dimock, and H. M. Crosswhite, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 456 (1956).
    [Crossref]
  6. W. H. Zachariasen, Acta Cryst. 1, 265 (1948).
    [Crossref]
  7. D. H. Templeton and C. H. Dauben, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 76, 5237 (1954).
    [Crossref]
  8. K. Schubert and A. Seitz, Z. Anorg. Allgem. Chem. 254, 116 (1947); R. Fricke and W. Durrwachter, 259, 305 (1949).
    [Crossref]
  9. R. Fricke and A. Seitz, Z. Anorg. Allgem. Chem. 254, 107 (1947).
    [Crossref]
  10. B. Bleaney, H. E. D. Scovil, and R. S. Trenam, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A223, 15 (1954).
  11. C. A. Hutchison, B. R. Judd, and D. F. D. Pope, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B70, 514 (1957); D. R. Johnston, E. Y. Wong, and O. M. Stafsudd, J. Chem. Phys. 44, 2693 (1966); P. D. Scott, private communication.
    [Crossref]
  12. G. Racah, Phys. Rev. 76, 1352 (1949).
    [Crossref]
  13. K. Rajnak and B. G. Wybourne, Phys. Rev. 132, 280 (1963).
    [Crossref]
  14. R. L. Schwiesow, Ph.D. dissertation, The Johns Hopkins University (1968).
  15. G. Racah, Phys. Rev. 62, 438 (1942).
    [Crossref]
  16. B. R. Judd, Operator Techniques in Atomic Spectroscopy (McGraw–Hill Book Co., New York, 1963), pp. 42 and 72.
  17. C. W. Nielson and G. F. Koster, Spectroscopic Coefficients for the pn, dnand fnConfigurations (The MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1963).
  18. M. Rotenberg, R. Bivins, N. Metropolis, and J. K. Wooten, The 3-j and 6-j Symbols (The MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1959).
  19. For a general review, see Ref. 4, p. 149.
  20. P. D. Scott, H. E. Meissner, and H. M. Crosswhite, Physics Letters 28A, 489 (1969).
  21. See Ref. 4, p. 149.

1969 (1)

P. D. Scott, H. E. Meissner, and H. M. Crosswhite, Physics Letters 28A, 489 (1969).

1967 (1)

A. H. Piksis, G. H. Dieke, and H. M. Crosswhite, J. Chem. Phys. 47, 5083 (1967).
[Crossref]

1963 (1)

K. Rajnak and B. G. Wybourne, Phys. Rev. 132, 280 (1963).
[Crossref]

1957 (2)

G. H. Dieke and L. Leopold, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 944 (1957); K. H. Hellwege, S. Hufner, and H. Schmidt, Z. Physik 172, 460 (1963).
[Crossref]

C. A. Hutchison, B. R. Judd, and D. F. D. Pope, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B70, 514 (1957); D. R. Johnston, E. Y. Wong, and O. M. Stafsudd, J. Chem. Phys. 44, 2693 (1966); P. D. Scott, private communication.
[Crossref]

1956 (1)

1954 (2)

D. H. Templeton and C. H. Dauben, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 76, 5237 (1954).
[Crossref]

B. Bleaney, H. E. D. Scovil, and R. S. Trenam, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A223, 15 (1954).

1949 (1)

G. Racah, Phys. Rev. 76, 1352 (1949).
[Crossref]

1948 (1)

W. H. Zachariasen, Acta Cryst. 1, 265 (1948).
[Crossref]

1947 (2)

K. Schubert and A. Seitz, Z. Anorg. Allgem. Chem. 254, 116 (1947); R. Fricke and W. Durrwachter, 259, 305 (1949).
[Crossref]

R. Fricke and A. Seitz, Z. Anorg. Allgem. Chem. 254, 107 (1947).
[Crossref]

1942 (1)

G. Racah, Phys. Rev. 62, 438 (1942).
[Crossref]

Bivins, R.

M. Rotenberg, R. Bivins, N. Metropolis, and J. K. Wooten, The 3-j and 6-j Symbols (The MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1959).

Bleaney, B.

B. Bleaney, H. E. D. Scovil, and R. S. Trenam, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A223, 15 (1954).

Crosswhite, H. M.

P. D. Scott, H. E. Meissner, and H. M. Crosswhite, Physics Letters 28A, 489 (1969).

A. H. Piksis, G. H. Dieke, and H. M. Crosswhite, J. Chem. Phys. 47, 5083 (1967).
[Crossref]

G. H. Dieke, D. Dimock, and H. M. Crosswhite, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 456 (1956).
[Crossref]

Dauben, C. H.

D. H. Templeton and C. H. Dauben, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 76, 5237 (1954).
[Crossref]

Dieke, G. H.

A. H. Piksis, G. H. Dieke, and H. M. Crosswhite, J. Chem. Phys. 47, 5083 (1967).
[Crossref]

G. H. Dieke and L. Leopold, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 944 (1957); K. H. Hellwege, S. Hufner, and H. Schmidt, Z. Physik 172, 460 (1963).
[Crossref]

G. H. Dieke, D. Dimock, and H. M. Crosswhite, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 456 (1956).
[Crossref]

G. H. Dieke, in Spectra and Energy Levels of Rare Earth Ions in Crystals, H. M. Crosswhite and Hannah Crosswhite, Eds. (Interscience Publishers, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1968), p. 249 ff.

Dimock, D.

Fricke, R.

R. Fricke and A. Seitz, Z. Anorg. Allgem. Chem. 254, 107 (1947).
[Crossref]

Hutchison, C. A.

C. A. Hutchison, B. R. Judd, and D. F. D. Pope, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B70, 514 (1957); D. R. Johnston, E. Y. Wong, and O. M. Stafsudd, J. Chem. Phys. 44, 2693 (1966); P. D. Scott, private communication.
[Crossref]

Judd, B. R.

C. A. Hutchison, B. R. Judd, and D. F. D. Pope, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B70, 514 (1957); D. R. Johnston, E. Y. Wong, and O. M. Stafsudd, J. Chem. Phys. 44, 2693 (1966); P. D. Scott, private communication.
[Crossref]

B. R. Judd, Operator Techniques in Atomic Spectroscopy (McGraw–Hill Book Co., New York, 1963), pp. 42 and 72.

Koster, G. F.

C. W. Nielson and G. F. Koster, Spectroscopic Coefficients for the pn, dnand fnConfigurations (The MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1963).

Leopold, L.

Meissner, H. E.

P. D. Scott, H. E. Meissner, and H. M. Crosswhite, Physics Letters 28A, 489 (1969).

Metropolis, N.

M. Rotenberg, R. Bivins, N. Metropolis, and J. K. Wooten, The 3-j and 6-j Symbols (The MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1959).

Nielson, C. W.

C. W. Nielson and G. F. Koster, Spectroscopic Coefficients for the pn, dnand fnConfigurations (The MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1963).

Piksis, A. H.

A. H. Piksis, G. H. Dieke, and H. M. Crosswhite, J. Chem. Phys. 47, 5083 (1967).
[Crossref]

Pope, D. F. D.

C. A. Hutchison, B. R. Judd, and D. F. D. Pope, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B70, 514 (1957); D. R. Johnston, E. Y. Wong, and O. M. Stafsudd, J. Chem. Phys. 44, 2693 (1966); P. D. Scott, private communication.
[Crossref]

Racah, G.

G. Racah, Phys. Rev. 76, 1352 (1949).
[Crossref]

G. Racah, Phys. Rev. 62, 438 (1942).
[Crossref]

Rajnak, K.

K. Rajnak and B. G. Wybourne, Phys. Rev. 132, 280 (1963).
[Crossref]

Rotenberg, M.

M. Rotenberg, R. Bivins, N. Metropolis, and J. K. Wooten, The 3-j and 6-j Symbols (The MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1959).

Schubert, K.

K. Schubert and A. Seitz, Z. Anorg. Allgem. Chem. 254, 116 (1947); R. Fricke and W. Durrwachter, 259, 305 (1949).
[Crossref]

Schwiesow, R. L.

R. L. Schwiesow, Ph.D. dissertation, The Johns Hopkins University (1968).

Scott, P. D.

P. D. Scott, H. E. Meissner, and H. M. Crosswhite, Physics Letters 28A, 489 (1969).

Scovil, H. E. D.

B. Bleaney, H. E. D. Scovil, and R. S. Trenam, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A223, 15 (1954).

Seitz, A.

K. Schubert and A. Seitz, Z. Anorg. Allgem. Chem. 254, 116 (1947); R. Fricke and W. Durrwachter, 259, 305 (1949).
[Crossref]

R. Fricke and A. Seitz, Z. Anorg. Allgem. Chem. 254, 107 (1947).
[Crossref]

Templeton, D. H.

D. H. Templeton and C. H. Dauben, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 76, 5237 (1954).
[Crossref]

Trenam, R. S.

B. Bleaney, H. E. D. Scovil, and R. S. Trenam, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A223, 15 (1954).

Wooten, J. K.

M. Rotenberg, R. Bivins, N. Metropolis, and J. K. Wooten, The 3-j and 6-j Symbols (The MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1959).

Wybourne, B. G.

K. Rajnak and B. G. Wybourne, Phys. Rev. 132, 280 (1963).
[Crossref]

Zachariasen, W. H.

W. H. Zachariasen, Acta Cryst. 1, 265 (1948).
[Crossref]

Acta Cryst. (1)

W. H. Zachariasen, Acta Cryst. 1, 265 (1948).
[Crossref]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

D. H. Templeton and C. H. Dauben, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 76, 5237 (1954).
[Crossref]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

A. H. Piksis, G. H. Dieke, and H. M. Crosswhite, J. Chem. Phys. 47, 5083 (1967).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

Phys. Rev. (3)

G. Racah, Phys. Rev. 76, 1352 (1949).
[Crossref]

K. Rajnak and B. G. Wybourne, Phys. Rev. 132, 280 (1963).
[Crossref]

G. Racah, Phys. Rev. 62, 438 (1942).
[Crossref]

Physics Letters (1)

P. D. Scott, H. E. Meissner, and H. M. Crosswhite, Physics Letters 28A, 489 (1969).

Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) (2)

B. Bleaney, H. E. D. Scovil, and R. S. Trenam, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A223, 15 (1954).

C. A. Hutchison, B. R. Judd, and D. F. D. Pope, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B70, 514 (1957); D. R. Johnston, E. Y. Wong, and O. M. Stafsudd, J. Chem. Phys. 44, 2693 (1966); P. D. Scott, private communication.
[Crossref]

Z. Anorg. Allgem. Chem. (2)

K. Schubert and A. Seitz, Z. Anorg. Allgem. Chem. 254, 116 (1947); R. Fricke and W. Durrwachter, 259, 305 (1949).
[Crossref]

R. Fricke and A. Seitz, Z. Anorg. Allgem. Chem. 254, 107 (1947).
[Crossref]

Other (8)

L. Leopold, Ph.D. dissertation, The Johns Hopkins University (1958).

G. H. Dieke, in Spectra and Energy Levels of Rare Earth Ions in Crystals, H. M. Crosswhite and Hannah Crosswhite, Eds. (Interscience Publishers, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1968), p. 249 ff.

R. L. Schwiesow, Ph.D. dissertation, The Johns Hopkins University (1968).

B. R. Judd, Operator Techniques in Atomic Spectroscopy (McGraw–Hill Book Co., New York, 1963), pp. 42 and 72.

C. W. Nielson and G. F. Koster, Spectroscopic Coefficients for the pn, dnand fnConfigurations (The MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1963).

M. Rotenberg, R. Bivins, N. Metropolis, and J. K. Wooten, The 3-j and 6-j Symbols (The MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1959).

For a general review, see Ref. 4, p. 149.

See Ref. 4, p. 149.

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Tables (8)

Tables Icon

Table I Energy levels of 1% Gd:LaBr3 at 1.5 K; all energies in cm−1.

Tables Icon

Table II Energy levels of 5% Gd:LaCl3 at 1.5 K; all energies in cm−1.

Tables Icon

Table III Energy levels of GdCl3 at 1.5 K; all energies in cm−1.

Tables Icon

Table IV Energy levels of 2% Gd:Y(OH)3 at 1.5 K; all energies in cm−1.

Tables Icon

Table V Energy levels of Gd(OH)3 at 1.5 K; all energies in cm−1.

Tables Icon

Table VI Gd3+ free-ion parameters (all values in cm−1).

Tables Icon

Table VII Calculated intermediate-coupling g values.

Tables Icon

Table VIII Hexagonal crystal-field parameters with J mixing.