Abstract

The optical absorption spectra of 1% Gd:LaBr<sub>3</sub>, 5% Gd:LaCl<sub>3</sub>, GdCl<sub>3</sub>, 2% Gd:Y(OH)<sub>3</sub> and Gd(OH)<sub>3</sub> at 1.5 K in high resolution are given over the region 31 000 cm<sup>-1</sup> to 41 000 cm<sup>-1</sup>. Reduced matrix elements based on intermediate-coupling free-ion calculations are used to perform a crystal-field analysis for Gd<sup>3+</sup> in a 6¯(C<sub>3<i>h</i></sub>) symmetry electrostatic field. A least-squares fit to levels in each crystal has led to the assignment of <i>M</i> quantum numbers to most levels and of <i>B</i><sub><i>k</i></sub><sup><i>q</i></sup> parameters to each crystalline host.

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  1. G. H. Dieke and L. Leopold, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 944 (1957); K. H. Hellwege, S. Hufner, and H. Schmidt, Z. Physik 172, 460 (1963).
  2. L. Leopold, Ph.D. dissertation, The Johns Hopkins University (1958).
  3. A. H. Piksis, G. H. Dieke, and H. M. Crosswhite, J. Chem. Phys. 47, 5083 (1967).
  4. G. H. Dieke, in Spectra and Energy Levels of Rare Earth Ions in Crystals, H. M. Crosswhite and Hannah Crosswhite, Eds. (Inter-science Publishers, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1968), p. 249 ff.
  5. G. H. Dieke, D. Dimock, and H. M. Crosswhite, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 456 (1956).
  6. W. H. Zachariasen, Acta Cryst. 1, 265 (1948).
  7. D. H. Templeton and C. H. Dauben, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 76, 5237 (1954).
  8. K. Schubert and A. Seitz, Z. Anorg. Allgem. Chem. 254, 116 (1947); R. Fricke and W. Durrwachter, 259, 305 (1949).
  9. R. Fricke and A. Seitz, Z. Anorg. Allgem. Chem. 254, 107 (1947).
  10. B. Bleaney, H. E. D. Scovil, and R. S. Trenam, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A223, 15 (1954).
  11. C. A. Hutchison, Jr., B. R. Judd, and D. F. D. Pope, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B70, 514 (1957); D. R. Johnston, E. Y. Wong, and O. M. Stafsudd, J. Chem. Phys. 44, 2693 (1966); P. D. Scott, private communication.
  12. G. Racah, Phys. Rev. 76, 1352 (1949).
  13. K. Rajnak and B. G. Wybourne, Phys. Rev. 132, 280 (1963).
  14. R. L. Schwiesow, Ph.D. dissertation, The Johns Hopkins University (1968).
  15. G. Racah, Phys. Rev. 62, 438 (1942).
  16. B. R. Judd, Operator Techniques in Atomic Spectroscopy (McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 1963), pp. 42 and 72.
  17. C. W. Nielson and G. F. Koster, Spectroscopic Coefficients for the pn, dnand fn Configurations (The MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1963).
  18. M. Rotenberg, R. Bivins, N. Metropolis, and J. K. Wooten, Jr., The 3-j and 6-j Symbols (The MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1959).
  19. For a general review, see Ref. 4, p. 149.
  20. P. D. Scott, H. E. Meissner and H. M. Crosswhite, Physics Letters 28A, 489 (1969).
  21. See Ref. 4, p. 149.

Bivins, R.

M. Rotenberg, R. Bivins, N. Metropolis, and J. K. Wooten, Jr., The 3-j and 6-j Symbols (The MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1959).

Bleaney, B.

B. Bleaney, H. E. D. Scovil, and R. S. Trenam, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A223, 15 (1954).

Crosswhite, H. M.

A. H. Piksis, G. H. Dieke, and H. M. Crosswhite, J. Chem. Phys. 47, 5083 (1967).

G. H. Dieke, D. Dimock, and H. M. Crosswhite, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 456 (1956).

P. D. Scott, H. E. Meissner and H. M. Crosswhite, Physics Letters 28A, 489 (1969).

Dauben, C. H.

D. H. Templeton and C. H. Dauben, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 76, 5237 (1954).

Dieke, G. H.

A. H. Piksis, G. H. Dieke, and H. M. Crosswhite, J. Chem. Phys. 47, 5083 (1967).

G. H. Dieke, in Spectra and Energy Levels of Rare Earth Ions in Crystals, H. M. Crosswhite and Hannah Crosswhite, Eds. (Inter-science Publishers, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1968), p. 249 ff.

G. H. Dieke, D. Dimock, and H. M. Crosswhite, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 456 (1956).

G. H. Dieke and L. Leopold, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 944 (1957); K. H. Hellwege, S. Hufner, and H. Schmidt, Z. Physik 172, 460 (1963).

Dimock, D.

G. H. Dieke, D. Dimock, and H. M. Crosswhite, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 456 (1956).

Fricke, R.

R. Fricke and A. Seitz, Z. Anorg. Allgem. Chem. 254, 107 (1947).

Hutchison, Jr., C. A.

C. A. Hutchison, Jr., B. R. Judd, and D. F. D. Pope, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B70, 514 (1957); D. R. Johnston, E. Y. Wong, and O. M. Stafsudd, J. Chem. Phys. 44, 2693 (1966); P. D. Scott, private communication.

Judd, B. R.

C. A. Hutchison, Jr., B. R. Judd, and D. F. D. Pope, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B70, 514 (1957); D. R. Johnston, E. Y. Wong, and O. M. Stafsudd, J. Chem. Phys. 44, 2693 (1966); P. D. Scott, private communication.

B. R. Judd, Operator Techniques in Atomic Spectroscopy (McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 1963), pp. 42 and 72.

Koster, G. F.

C. W. Nielson and G. F. Koster, Spectroscopic Coefficients for the pn, dnand fn Configurations (The MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1963).

Leopold, L.

G. H. Dieke and L. Leopold, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 944 (1957); K. H. Hellwege, S. Hufner, and H. Schmidt, Z. Physik 172, 460 (1963).

L. Leopold, Ph.D. dissertation, The Johns Hopkins University (1958).

Meissner, H. E.

P. D. Scott, H. E. Meissner and H. M. Crosswhite, Physics Letters 28A, 489 (1969).

Metropolis, N.

M. Rotenberg, R. Bivins, N. Metropolis, and J. K. Wooten, Jr., The 3-j and 6-j Symbols (The MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1959).

Nielson, C. W.

C. W. Nielson and G. F. Koster, Spectroscopic Coefficients for the pn, dnand fn Configurations (The MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1963).

Piksis, A. H.

A. H. Piksis, G. H. Dieke, and H. M. Crosswhite, J. Chem. Phys. 47, 5083 (1967).

Pope, D. F. D.

C. A. Hutchison, Jr., B. R. Judd, and D. F. D. Pope, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B70, 514 (1957); D. R. Johnston, E. Y. Wong, and O. M. Stafsudd, J. Chem. Phys. 44, 2693 (1966); P. D. Scott, private communication.

Racah, G.

G. Racah, Phys. Rev. 76, 1352 (1949).

G. Racah, Phys. Rev. 62, 438 (1942).

Rajnak, K.

K. Rajnak and B. G. Wybourne, Phys. Rev. 132, 280 (1963).

Rotenberg, M.

M. Rotenberg, R. Bivins, N. Metropolis, and J. K. Wooten, Jr., The 3-j and 6-j Symbols (The MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1959).

Schubert, K.

K. Schubert and A. Seitz, Z. Anorg. Allgem. Chem. 254, 116 (1947); R. Fricke and W. Durrwachter, 259, 305 (1949).

Schwiesow, R. L.

R. L. Schwiesow, Ph.D. dissertation, The Johns Hopkins University (1968).

Scott, P. D.

P. D. Scott, H. E. Meissner and H. M. Crosswhite, Physics Letters 28A, 489 (1969).

Scovil, H. E. D.

B. Bleaney, H. E. D. Scovil, and R. S. Trenam, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A223, 15 (1954).

Seitz, A.

K. Schubert and A. Seitz, Z. Anorg. Allgem. Chem. 254, 116 (1947); R. Fricke and W. Durrwachter, 259, 305 (1949).

R. Fricke and A. Seitz, Z. Anorg. Allgem. Chem. 254, 107 (1947).

Templeton, D. H.

D. H. Templeton and C. H. Dauben, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 76, 5237 (1954).

Trenam, R. S.

B. Bleaney, H. E. D. Scovil, and R. S. Trenam, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A223, 15 (1954).

Wooten, Jr., J. K.

M. Rotenberg, R. Bivins, N. Metropolis, and J. K. Wooten, Jr., The 3-j and 6-j Symbols (The MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1959).

Wybourne, B. G.

K. Rajnak and B. G. Wybourne, Phys. Rev. 132, 280 (1963).

Zachariasen, W. H.

W. H. Zachariasen, Acta Cryst. 1, 265 (1948).

Other

G. H. Dieke and L. Leopold, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 944 (1957); K. H. Hellwege, S. Hufner, and H. Schmidt, Z. Physik 172, 460 (1963).

L. Leopold, Ph.D. dissertation, The Johns Hopkins University (1958).

A. H. Piksis, G. H. Dieke, and H. M. Crosswhite, J. Chem. Phys. 47, 5083 (1967).

G. H. Dieke, in Spectra and Energy Levels of Rare Earth Ions in Crystals, H. M. Crosswhite and Hannah Crosswhite, Eds. (Inter-science Publishers, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1968), p. 249 ff.

G. H. Dieke, D. Dimock, and H. M. Crosswhite, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 456 (1956).

W. H. Zachariasen, Acta Cryst. 1, 265 (1948).

D. H. Templeton and C. H. Dauben, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 76, 5237 (1954).

K. Schubert and A. Seitz, Z. Anorg. Allgem. Chem. 254, 116 (1947); R. Fricke and W. Durrwachter, 259, 305 (1949).

R. Fricke and A. Seitz, Z. Anorg. Allgem. Chem. 254, 107 (1947).

B. Bleaney, H. E. D. Scovil, and R. S. Trenam, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A223, 15 (1954).

C. A. Hutchison, Jr., B. R. Judd, and D. F. D. Pope, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B70, 514 (1957); D. R. Johnston, E. Y. Wong, and O. M. Stafsudd, J. Chem. Phys. 44, 2693 (1966); P. D. Scott, private communication.

G. Racah, Phys. Rev. 76, 1352 (1949).

K. Rajnak and B. G. Wybourne, Phys. Rev. 132, 280 (1963).

R. L. Schwiesow, Ph.D. dissertation, The Johns Hopkins University (1968).

G. Racah, Phys. Rev. 62, 438 (1942).

B. R. Judd, Operator Techniques in Atomic Spectroscopy (McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 1963), pp. 42 and 72.

C. W. Nielson and G. F. Koster, Spectroscopic Coefficients for the pn, dnand fn Configurations (The MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1963).

M. Rotenberg, R. Bivins, N. Metropolis, and J. K. Wooten, Jr., The 3-j and 6-j Symbols (The MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1959).

For a general review, see Ref. 4, p. 149.

P. D. Scott, H. E. Meissner and H. M. Crosswhite, Physics Letters 28A, 489 (1969).

See Ref. 4, p. 149.

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