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References

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  1. D. L. Fried, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 175 (1967).
    [Crossref]
  2. R. E. Hufnagel (private communication).
  3. Handbook of Geophysics and Space Environments, Shea L. Valley, Ed. (McGraw–Hill Book Co., New York, 1965).
  4. J. W. Strohbehn, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 139 (1968).
    [Crossref]
  5. G. R. Ochs, “A Circuit for the Measurement of Normalized Cross-correlations,” (U. S. Gov’t Printing Office, Washington, D. C., 1968).

1968 (1)

1967 (1)

Fried, D. L.

Hufnagel, R. E.

R. E. Hufnagel (private communication).

Ochs, G. R.

G. R. Ochs, “A Circuit for the Measurement of Normalized Cross-correlations,” (U. S. Gov’t Printing Office, Washington, D. C., 1968).

Strohbehn, J. W.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

Other (3)

R. E. Hufnagel (private communication).

Handbook of Geophysics and Space Environments, Shea L. Valley, Ed. (McGraw–Hill Book Co., New York, 1965).

G. R. Ochs, “A Circuit for the Measurement of Normalized Cross-correlations,” (U. S. Gov’t Printing Office, Washington, D. C., 1968).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Evening observations of irradiance probability distributions for scintillation. Reading from upper left to lower right, these graphs correspond to observations taken over path lengths of 5.5, 15, 45, and 145 km. Log-amplitude variances for the respective paths are 0.081, 0.32, 0.15, and 0.13. Apertures 2.5 mm in diameter were used for the 45- and 145-km while 1-mm apertures were used for the shorter paths.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Diurnal change of log-amplitude variance on the 5.5-km path with a weighted average height of 60 m. Cn, as derived from spaced high-speed temperature probes 2 m above the ground, is also plotted. Mountain standard time, 8 February 1968, is shown on the abscissa.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Normalized log-amplitude covariance functions at 5.5 km (top graph) and 15 km. The solid curve is taken from Fried1 for horizontal propagation of a spherical wave of wave number k over a distance z. The measurements were made in the evening with apertures 1 mm in diameter.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Normalized log-amplitude covariance function at 45 m. The solid curve is taken from Fried1 for horizontal propagation of a spherical wave of wave number k over a distance z. The measurements were made on the evenings of 24 November (+ data), 30 November (× data), and 7 December 1967 (0 data).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Cn as a function of altitude above ground from Hufnagel.2 The circled letters indicate experimental determinations of Cn. Those at an altitude of 2 m are derived from spaced high-speed temperature probes. All other points are from optical measurements.

Tables (1)

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Table I Refractive-index structure constants derived from optical and temperature measurements.

Equations (7)

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C T 2 = T 2 - T 1 2 av / r 2 / 3
n = 77.6 P T [ 1 + 0.00753 λ 2 ] × 10 - 6 ,
n T = - 77.6 P T 2 [ 1 + 0.00753 λ 2 ] × 10 - 6 .
C n = 77.6 P T 2 [ 1 + 0.00753 λ 2 ] × 10 - 6 C T .
C l ( 0 ) = ( ln v - ln v av ) 2 av ,
C l ( 0 ) = 1 4 ( ln k / 2 ) 2 .
C l s ( 0 ) = 0.124 k 7 / 6 z 11 / 6 C n 0 2