Abstract

Surface electrodes have been used for many years to pick up electrical activity that originates in the human eye or occipital cortex. In the earlier work, bright flashes of light were required to elicit responses that were large enough to measure against the ambient noise of the recording system. Recently, averaging techniques and other improvements have greatly increased the sensitivity of these methods. It is therefore no longer necessary to use the relatively meaningless light flashes, and responses can be obtained to visually significant aspects of the stimulus field. Of particular interest are specific effects due to image motion, color differences, and binocular fusion and rivalry. By the use of standard contact-lens and EEG electrodes, information on the processing of the stimulus pattern is obtained at both retinal and occipital levels of the human visual system. Microelectrode experiments with animal subjects have likewise shown that single flashes of light are of minor importance as visual stimuli, and that more significant aspects of visual patterns are particularly effective in arousing the responses of visual cells at all levels. Hence this evidence can be used as a guide to the interpretation of the human results, since these are necessarily obtained from electrodes that are remote from the sites at which they are generated. In short, the traditional methods of psychophysics are still used to provide definitive data on human vision. But the neural basis for these data is most clearly provided by microelectrode studies on the visual cells of experimental animals, together with such remotely recorded human action potentials as can be obtained from the retina and cortex.

© 1969 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. Kohlrausch, in Handbuch der normalen und pathologischen Physiologie, A. Bethe, G. von Bergmann, G. Embden, and A. Ellinger, Eds. (Springer Verlag, Berlin, 1931), Vol. XII, Sec. 2, p. 1394.
  2. H. K. Hartline, Am. J. Physiol. 73, 600 (1925).
  3. L. A. Riggs, Proc. Soc. Exptl. Biol. Med. 48, 204 (1941).
    [Crossref]
  4. R. Granit, Sensory Mechanisms of the Retina (Oxford University Press, New York, 1947).
  5. T. Tomita, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 49 (1963);K. T. Brown, Vision Res. 8, 633 (1968).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. W. Noell and H. I. Chinn, Am. J. Physiol. 161, 573 (1950).
    [PubMed]
  7. R. Granit, in The Eye, H. Davson, Ed. (Academic Press Inc., New York, 1962), Vol. II, p. 537.
  8. G. Karpe, Acta Ophthalmol. (Copenhagen) Suppl. 24, 1 (1945).
  9. L. A. Riggs, in Vision and Visual Perception, C. H. Graham, Ed. (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1965), p. 81.
  10. F. Bremer, in Sensory Communications, W. A. Rosenblith, Ed. (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1961);O. D. Creutzfeld, S. Watanabe, and H. D. Lux, Electroenceph. Clin. Neurophysiol. 20, 1 (1966).
    [Crossref]
  11. R. Elul, in Data Acquisition and Processing in Biology and Medicine (Pergamon Press Inc., New York, 1968), Vol. V, p. 93.
    [Crossref]
  12. Y. Karahashi and S. Goldring, Electroenceph. Clin. Neurophysiol. 20, 600 (1966).
    [Crossref]
  13. R. Cooper, A. L. Winter, and W. G. Walter, Electroenceph. Clin. Neurophysiol. 18, 217 (1965);S. S. Fox and J. H. O’Brien, Science 147, 888 (1965);M. Rayport, H. G. Vaughan, and C. L. Rosengart, Electroenceph. Clin. Neurophysiol. 17, 608 (1964).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. M. Haider, P. Spong, and D. B. Lindsley, Science 145, 180 (1964);P. Spong, M. Haider, and D. B. Lindsley, Science 148, 395 (1965).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. K. T. Brown and M. Murakami, Nature 201, 626 (1964).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. R. A. Cone, Nature 204, 736 (1964).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. N. R. Galloway, Brit. J. Ophthalmol. 51, 261 (1967);D. Yonemura and K. Kawasaki, Jap. J. Physiol. 17, 235 (1967).
    [Crossref]
  18. E. D. Adrian, Nature 154, 361 (1944).
    [Crossref]
  19. L. A. Riggs, R. N. Berry, and M. Wayner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 427 (1949);J. C. Armington, D. I. Tepas, W. J. Kropfl, and W. H. Hengst, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 877 (1961).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. E. D. Adrian, J. Physiol. (London) 105, 24 (1946);E. Dodt, Nature 168, 738 (1951);H. Bornschein and G. Schubert, Z. Biol. 106, 229 (1953).
    [Crossref]
  21. E. P. Johnson and T. N. Cornsweet, Nature 174, 614 (1954);J. Armington, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 1058 (1955).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. L. A. Riggs, E. P. Johnson, and A. M. L. Schick, Science 144, 567 (1964).
    [Crossref]
  23. E. P. Johnson, L. A. Riggs, and A. M. L. Schick, Clinical Electroretinography (Suppl. to Vision Res.) (1966), p. 75.
  24. L. A. Riggs, E. P. Johnson, and A. M. L. Schick, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1621 (1966).
    [Crossref]
  25. C. E. Sternheim and L. A. Riggs, Vision Res. 8, 25 (1968).
    [Crossref]
  26. J. L. Brown, Ref. 9, p. 39.
  27. R. M. Copenhaver and G. D. Beinhocker, Invest. Ophthalmol. 2, 393 (1963);R. G. DeVoe, H. Ripps, and H. G. Vaughan, Vision Res. 8, 135 (1968);W. J. Rietveld, W. E. M. Tordoir, and J. W. Duyff, Acta Physiol. Pharmacol. Neerl. 13, 330 (1965).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. L. Bergamini and B. Bergamasco, Cortical Evoked Potentials in Man (Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, Ill., 1967);R. M. Harter and C. T. White, Vision Res. 8, 701 (1968);W. J. Rietveld, W. E. M. Tordoir, J. R. B. Hagenouw, J. A. Lubbers, and A. C. Spoor, Acta Physiol. Pharmacol. Neerl. 14, 259 (1967);R. Spehlmann, Electroenceph. Clin. Neurophysiol. 19, 560 (1965);H. Spekreijse, Analysis of E. E. G. Responses in Man, thesis, University of Amsterdam (1966).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  29. D. A. Burkhardt and L. A. Riggs, Vision Res. 7, 453 (1967).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  30. E. G. Gross, H. G. Vaughan, and E. Valenstein, Electroenceph. Clin. Neurophysiol. 22, 204 (1967).
    [Crossref]
  31. W. A. Cobb, H. B. Morton, and G. Ettlinger, Nature 216, 1123 (1967).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  32. J. H. Jacobson, Clinical Electroretinography (Charles C Thomas, Springfield, Ill., 1961).
  33. L. A. Riggs, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 38, 70 (1954).
    [PubMed]
  34. R. M. Boynton and L. A. Riggs, J. Exptl. Psychol. 42, 217 (1951);R. Boynton, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 442 (1953).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  35. E. D. Adrian, J. Physiol. (London) 104, 84 (1945);R. Granit, Receptors and Sensory Perception (Yale University Press, New Haven, 1955).
  36. G. Wald, Science 101, 653 (1945).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  37. J. B. Siegfried, Spectral Sensitivity of the Human Visual System as Measured from Both Evoked Cortical Potentials and Psychophysical Responses, Ph.D. dissertation, Brown University (1967).
  38. L. A. Riggs and C. E. Sternheim, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 635 (1969).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  39. P. Gouras and R. D. Gunkel, Doc. Ophthalmol. 18, 137 (1964).
    [Crossref]
  40. R. L. DeValois, J. Gen. Physiol. 43, Suppl., Part 2, 115 (1960).
    [Crossref]
  41. D. H. Hubel and T. N. Wiesel, J. Physiol. (London) 195, 215 (1968).
  42. L. A. Riggs and P. Whittle, Vision Res. 7, 441 (1967);D. Lehmann, G. W. Beeler, and D. H. Fender, Nature 215, 204 (1967).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  43. D. Lehmann, G. W. Beeler, and D. H. Fender, Electroenceph. Clin. Neurophysiol. 22, 136 (1967).
    [Crossref]
  44. D. Lehmann and D. H. Fender, Electroenceph. Clin. Neurophysiol. 24, 542 (1968);D. M. MacKay, Nature 217, 81 (1968);D. M. MacKay and W. J. Rietveld, Nature 217, 677 (1968).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

1969 (1)

1968 (3)

C. E. Sternheim and L. A. Riggs, Vision Res. 8, 25 (1968).
[Crossref]

D. H. Hubel and T. N. Wiesel, J. Physiol. (London) 195, 215 (1968).

D. Lehmann and D. H. Fender, Electroenceph. Clin. Neurophysiol. 24, 542 (1968);D. M. MacKay, Nature 217, 81 (1968);D. M. MacKay and W. J. Rietveld, Nature 217, 677 (1968).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1967 (6)

L. A. Riggs and P. Whittle, Vision Res. 7, 441 (1967);D. Lehmann, G. W. Beeler, and D. H. Fender, Nature 215, 204 (1967).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Lehmann, G. W. Beeler, and D. H. Fender, Electroenceph. Clin. Neurophysiol. 22, 136 (1967).
[Crossref]

D. A. Burkhardt and L. A. Riggs, Vision Res. 7, 453 (1967).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. G. Gross, H. G. Vaughan, and E. Valenstein, Electroenceph. Clin. Neurophysiol. 22, 204 (1967).
[Crossref]

W. A. Cobb, H. B. Morton, and G. Ettlinger, Nature 216, 1123 (1967).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. R. Galloway, Brit. J. Ophthalmol. 51, 261 (1967);D. Yonemura and K. Kawasaki, Jap. J. Physiol. 17, 235 (1967).
[Crossref]

1966 (3)

E. P. Johnson, L. A. Riggs, and A. M. L. Schick, Clinical Electroretinography (Suppl. to Vision Res.) (1966), p. 75.

L. A. Riggs, E. P. Johnson, and A. M. L. Schick, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1621 (1966).
[Crossref]

Y. Karahashi and S. Goldring, Electroenceph. Clin. Neurophysiol. 20, 600 (1966).
[Crossref]

1965 (1)

R. Cooper, A. L. Winter, and W. G. Walter, Electroenceph. Clin. Neurophysiol. 18, 217 (1965);S. S. Fox and J. H. O’Brien, Science 147, 888 (1965);M. Rayport, H. G. Vaughan, and C. L. Rosengart, Electroenceph. Clin. Neurophysiol. 17, 608 (1964).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1964 (5)

M. Haider, P. Spong, and D. B. Lindsley, Science 145, 180 (1964);P. Spong, M. Haider, and D. B. Lindsley, Science 148, 395 (1965).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. T. Brown and M. Murakami, Nature 201, 626 (1964).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. A. Cone, Nature 204, 736 (1964).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. A. Riggs, E. P. Johnson, and A. M. L. Schick, Science 144, 567 (1964).
[Crossref]

P. Gouras and R. D. Gunkel, Doc. Ophthalmol. 18, 137 (1964).
[Crossref]

1963 (2)

R. M. Copenhaver and G. D. Beinhocker, Invest. Ophthalmol. 2, 393 (1963);R. G. DeVoe, H. Ripps, and H. G. Vaughan, Vision Res. 8, 135 (1968);W. J. Rietveld, W. E. M. Tordoir, and J. W. Duyff, Acta Physiol. Pharmacol. Neerl. 13, 330 (1965).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Tomita, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 49 (1963);K. T. Brown, Vision Res. 8, 633 (1968).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1960 (1)

R. L. DeValois, J. Gen. Physiol. 43, Suppl., Part 2, 115 (1960).
[Crossref]

1954 (2)

L. A. Riggs, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 38, 70 (1954).
[PubMed]

E. P. Johnson and T. N. Cornsweet, Nature 174, 614 (1954);J. Armington, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 1058 (1955).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1951 (1)

R. M. Boynton and L. A. Riggs, J. Exptl. Psychol. 42, 217 (1951);R. Boynton, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 442 (1953).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1950 (1)

W. Noell and H. I. Chinn, Am. J. Physiol. 161, 573 (1950).
[PubMed]

1949 (1)

1946 (1)

E. D. Adrian, J. Physiol. (London) 105, 24 (1946);E. Dodt, Nature 168, 738 (1951);H. Bornschein and G. Schubert, Z. Biol. 106, 229 (1953).
[Crossref]

1945 (3)

G. Karpe, Acta Ophthalmol. (Copenhagen) Suppl. 24, 1 (1945).

E. D. Adrian, J. Physiol. (London) 104, 84 (1945);R. Granit, Receptors and Sensory Perception (Yale University Press, New Haven, 1955).

G. Wald, Science 101, 653 (1945).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1944 (1)

E. D. Adrian, Nature 154, 361 (1944).
[Crossref]

1941 (1)

L. A. Riggs, Proc. Soc. Exptl. Biol. Med. 48, 204 (1941).
[Crossref]

1925 (1)

H. K. Hartline, Am. J. Physiol. 73, 600 (1925).

Adrian, E. D.

E. D. Adrian, J. Physiol. (London) 105, 24 (1946);E. Dodt, Nature 168, 738 (1951);H. Bornschein and G. Schubert, Z. Biol. 106, 229 (1953).
[Crossref]

E. D. Adrian, J. Physiol. (London) 104, 84 (1945);R. Granit, Receptors and Sensory Perception (Yale University Press, New Haven, 1955).

E. D. Adrian, Nature 154, 361 (1944).
[Crossref]

Beeler, G. W.

D. Lehmann, G. W. Beeler, and D. H. Fender, Electroenceph. Clin. Neurophysiol. 22, 136 (1967).
[Crossref]

Beinhocker, G. D.

R. M. Copenhaver and G. D. Beinhocker, Invest. Ophthalmol. 2, 393 (1963);R. G. DeVoe, H. Ripps, and H. G. Vaughan, Vision Res. 8, 135 (1968);W. J. Rietveld, W. E. M. Tordoir, and J. W. Duyff, Acta Physiol. Pharmacol. Neerl. 13, 330 (1965).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bergamasco, B.

L. Bergamini and B. Bergamasco, Cortical Evoked Potentials in Man (Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, Ill., 1967);R. M. Harter and C. T. White, Vision Res. 8, 701 (1968);W. J. Rietveld, W. E. M. Tordoir, J. R. B. Hagenouw, J. A. Lubbers, and A. C. Spoor, Acta Physiol. Pharmacol. Neerl. 14, 259 (1967);R. Spehlmann, Electroenceph. Clin. Neurophysiol. 19, 560 (1965);H. Spekreijse, Analysis of E. E. G. Responses in Man, thesis, University of Amsterdam (1966).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bergamini, L.

L. Bergamini and B. Bergamasco, Cortical Evoked Potentials in Man (Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, Ill., 1967);R. M. Harter and C. T. White, Vision Res. 8, 701 (1968);W. J. Rietveld, W. E. M. Tordoir, J. R. B. Hagenouw, J. A. Lubbers, and A. C. Spoor, Acta Physiol. Pharmacol. Neerl. 14, 259 (1967);R. Spehlmann, Electroenceph. Clin. Neurophysiol. 19, 560 (1965);H. Spekreijse, Analysis of E. E. G. Responses in Man, thesis, University of Amsterdam (1966).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Berry, R. N.

Boynton, R. M.

R. M. Boynton and L. A. Riggs, J. Exptl. Psychol. 42, 217 (1951);R. Boynton, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 442 (1953).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bremer, F.

F. Bremer, in Sensory Communications, W. A. Rosenblith, Ed. (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1961);O. D. Creutzfeld, S. Watanabe, and H. D. Lux, Electroenceph. Clin. Neurophysiol. 20, 1 (1966).
[Crossref]

Brown, J. L.

J. L. Brown, Ref. 9, p. 39.

Brown, K. T.

K. T. Brown and M. Murakami, Nature 201, 626 (1964).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burkhardt, D. A.

D. A. Burkhardt and L. A. Riggs, Vision Res. 7, 453 (1967).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chinn, H. I.

W. Noell and H. I. Chinn, Am. J. Physiol. 161, 573 (1950).
[PubMed]

Cobb, W. A.

W. A. Cobb, H. B. Morton, and G. Ettlinger, Nature 216, 1123 (1967).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cone, R. A.

R. A. Cone, Nature 204, 736 (1964).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cooper, R.

R. Cooper, A. L. Winter, and W. G. Walter, Electroenceph. Clin. Neurophysiol. 18, 217 (1965);S. S. Fox and J. H. O’Brien, Science 147, 888 (1965);M. Rayport, H. G. Vaughan, and C. L. Rosengart, Electroenceph. Clin. Neurophysiol. 17, 608 (1964).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Copenhaver, R. M.

R. M. Copenhaver and G. D. Beinhocker, Invest. Ophthalmol. 2, 393 (1963);R. G. DeVoe, H. Ripps, and H. G. Vaughan, Vision Res. 8, 135 (1968);W. J. Rietveld, W. E. M. Tordoir, and J. W. Duyff, Acta Physiol. Pharmacol. Neerl. 13, 330 (1965).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cornsweet, T. N.

E. P. Johnson and T. N. Cornsweet, Nature 174, 614 (1954);J. Armington, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 1058 (1955).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

DeValois, R. L.

R. L. DeValois, J. Gen. Physiol. 43, Suppl., Part 2, 115 (1960).
[Crossref]

Elul, R.

R. Elul, in Data Acquisition and Processing in Biology and Medicine (Pergamon Press Inc., New York, 1968), Vol. V, p. 93.
[Crossref]

Ettlinger, G.

W. A. Cobb, H. B. Morton, and G. Ettlinger, Nature 216, 1123 (1967).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fender, D. H.

D. Lehmann and D. H. Fender, Electroenceph. Clin. Neurophysiol. 24, 542 (1968);D. M. MacKay, Nature 217, 81 (1968);D. M. MacKay and W. J. Rietveld, Nature 217, 677 (1968).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Lehmann, G. W. Beeler, and D. H. Fender, Electroenceph. Clin. Neurophysiol. 22, 136 (1967).
[Crossref]

Galloway, N. R.

N. R. Galloway, Brit. J. Ophthalmol. 51, 261 (1967);D. Yonemura and K. Kawasaki, Jap. J. Physiol. 17, 235 (1967).
[Crossref]

Goldring, S.

Y. Karahashi and S. Goldring, Electroenceph. Clin. Neurophysiol. 20, 600 (1966).
[Crossref]

Gouras, P.

P. Gouras and R. D. Gunkel, Doc. Ophthalmol. 18, 137 (1964).
[Crossref]

Granit, R.

R. Granit, Sensory Mechanisms of the Retina (Oxford University Press, New York, 1947).

R. Granit, in The Eye, H. Davson, Ed. (Academic Press Inc., New York, 1962), Vol. II, p. 537.

Gross, E. G.

E. G. Gross, H. G. Vaughan, and E. Valenstein, Electroenceph. Clin. Neurophysiol. 22, 204 (1967).
[Crossref]

Gunkel, R. D.

P. Gouras and R. D. Gunkel, Doc. Ophthalmol. 18, 137 (1964).
[Crossref]

Haider, M.

M. Haider, P. Spong, and D. B. Lindsley, Science 145, 180 (1964);P. Spong, M. Haider, and D. B. Lindsley, Science 148, 395 (1965).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hartline, H. K.

H. K. Hartline, Am. J. Physiol. 73, 600 (1925).

Hubel, D. H.

D. H. Hubel and T. N. Wiesel, J. Physiol. (London) 195, 215 (1968).

Jacobson, J. H.

J. H. Jacobson, Clinical Electroretinography (Charles C Thomas, Springfield, Ill., 1961).

Johnson, E. P.

E. P. Johnson, L. A. Riggs, and A. M. L. Schick, Clinical Electroretinography (Suppl. to Vision Res.) (1966), p. 75.

L. A. Riggs, E. P. Johnson, and A. M. L. Schick, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1621 (1966).
[Crossref]

L. A. Riggs, E. P. Johnson, and A. M. L. Schick, Science 144, 567 (1964).
[Crossref]

E. P. Johnson and T. N. Cornsweet, Nature 174, 614 (1954);J. Armington, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 1058 (1955).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Karahashi, Y.

Y. Karahashi and S. Goldring, Electroenceph. Clin. Neurophysiol. 20, 600 (1966).
[Crossref]

Karpe, G.

G. Karpe, Acta Ophthalmol. (Copenhagen) Suppl. 24, 1 (1945).

Kohlrausch, A.

A. Kohlrausch, in Handbuch der normalen und pathologischen Physiologie, A. Bethe, G. von Bergmann, G. Embden, and A. Ellinger, Eds. (Springer Verlag, Berlin, 1931), Vol. XII, Sec. 2, p. 1394.

Lehmann, D.

D. Lehmann and D. H. Fender, Electroenceph. Clin. Neurophysiol. 24, 542 (1968);D. M. MacKay, Nature 217, 81 (1968);D. M. MacKay and W. J. Rietveld, Nature 217, 677 (1968).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Lehmann, G. W. Beeler, and D. H. Fender, Electroenceph. Clin. Neurophysiol. 22, 136 (1967).
[Crossref]

Lindsley, D. B.

M. Haider, P. Spong, and D. B. Lindsley, Science 145, 180 (1964);P. Spong, M. Haider, and D. B. Lindsley, Science 148, 395 (1965).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Morton, H. B.

W. A. Cobb, H. B. Morton, and G. Ettlinger, Nature 216, 1123 (1967).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Murakami, M.

K. T. Brown and M. Murakami, Nature 201, 626 (1964).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Noell, W.

W. Noell and H. I. Chinn, Am. J. Physiol. 161, 573 (1950).
[PubMed]

Riggs, L. A.

L. A. Riggs and C. E. Sternheim, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 635 (1969).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. E. Sternheim and L. A. Riggs, Vision Res. 8, 25 (1968).
[Crossref]

D. A. Burkhardt and L. A. Riggs, Vision Res. 7, 453 (1967).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. A. Riggs and P. Whittle, Vision Res. 7, 441 (1967);D. Lehmann, G. W. Beeler, and D. H. Fender, Nature 215, 204 (1967).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. P. Johnson, L. A. Riggs, and A. M. L. Schick, Clinical Electroretinography (Suppl. to Vision Res.) (1966), p. 75.

L. A. Riggs, E. P. Johnson, and A. M. L. Schick, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1621 (1966).
[Crossref]

L. A. Riggs, E. P. Johnson, and A. M. L. Schick, Science 144, 567 (1964).
[Crossref]

L. A. Riggs, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 38, 70 (1954).
[PubMed]

R. M. Boynton and L. A. Riggs, J. Exptl. Psychol. 42, 217 (1951);R. Boynton, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 442 (1953).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. A. Riggs, R. N. Berry, and M. Wayner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 427 (1949);J. C. Armington, D. I. Tepas, W. J. Kropfl, and W. H. Hengst, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 877 (1961).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. A. Riggs, Proc. Soc. Exptl. Biol. Med. 48, 204 (1941).
[Crossref]

L. A. Riggs, in Vision and Visual Perception, C. H. Graham, Ed. (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1965), p. 81.

Schick, A. M. L.

L. A. Riggs, E. P. Johnson, and A. M. L. Schick, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1621 (1966).
[Crossref]

E. P. Johnson, L. A. Riggs, and A. M. L. Schick, Clinical Electroretinography (Suppl. to Vision Res.) (1966), p. 75.

L. A. Riggs, E. P. Johnson, and A. M. L. Schick, Science 144, 567 (1964).
[Crossref]

Siegfried, J. B.

J. B. Siegfried, Spectral Sensitivity of the Human Visual System as Measured from Both Evoked Cortical Potentials and Psychophysical Responses, Ph.D. dissertation, Brown University (1967).

Spong, P.

M. Haider, P. Spong, and D. B. Lindsley, Science 145, 180 (1964);P. Spong, M. Haider, and D. B. Lindsley, Science 148, 395 (1965).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sternheim, C. E.

Tomita, T.

Valenstein, E.

E. G. Gross, H. G. Vaughan, and E. Valenstein, Electroenceph. Clin. Neurophysiol. 22, 204 (1967).
[Crossref]

Vaughan, H. G.

E. G. Gross, H. G. Vaughan, and E. Valenstein, Electroenceph. Clin. Neurophysiol. 22, 204 (1967).
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Wald, G.

G. Wald, Science 101, 653 (1945).
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Walter, W. G.

R. Cooper, A. L. Winter, and W. G. Walter, Electroenceph. Clin. Neurophysiol. 18, 217 (1965);S. S. Fox and J. H. O’Brien, Science 147, 888 (1965);M. Rayport, H. G. Vaughan, and C. L. Rosengart, Electroenceph. Clin. Neurophysiol. 17, 608 (1964).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wayner, M.

Whittle, P.

L. A. Riggs and P. Whittle, Vision Res. 7, 441 (1967);D. Lehmann, G. W. Beeler, and D. H. Fender, Nature 215, 204 (1967).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wiesel, T. N.

D. H. Hubel and T. N. Wiesel, J. Physiol. (London) 195, 215 (1968).

Winter, A. L.

R. Cooper, A. L. Winter, and W. G. Walter, Electroenceph. Clin. Neurophysiol. 18, 217 (1965);S. S. Fox and J. H. O’Brien, Science 147, 888 (1965);M. Rayport, H. G. Vaughan, and C. L. Rosengart, Electroenceph. Clin. Neurophysiol. 17, 608 (1964).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Acta Ophthalmol. (Copenhagen) Suppl. (1)

G. Karpe, Acta Ophthalmol. (Copenhagen) Suppl. 24, 1 (1945).

Am. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

L. A. Riggs, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 38, 70 (1954).
[PubMed]

Am. J. Physiol. (2)

H. K. Hartline, Am. J. Physiol. 73, 600 (1925).

W. Noell and H. I. Chinn, Am. J. Physiol. 161, 573 (1950).
[PubMed]

Brit. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

N. R. Galloway, Brit. J. Ophthalmol. 51, 261 (1967);D. Yonemura and K. Kawasaki, Jap. J. Physiol. 17, 235 (1967).
[Crossref]

Clinical Electroretinography (1)

E. P. Johnson, L. A. Riggs, and A. M. L. Schick, Clinical Electroretinography (Suppl. to Vision Res.) (1966), p. 75.

Doc. Ophthalmol. (1)

P. Gouras and R. D. Gunkel, Doc. Ophthalmol. 18, 137 (1964).
[Crossref]

Electroenceph. Clin. Neurophysiol. (5)

D. Lehmann, G. W. Beeler, and D. H. Fender, Electroenceph. Clin. Neurophysiol. 22, 136 (1967).
[Crossref]

D. Lehmann and D. H. Fender, Electroenceph. Clin. Neurophysiol. 24, 542 (1968);D. M. MacKay, Nature 217, 81 (1968);D. M. MacKay and W. J. Rietveld, Nature 217, 677 (1968).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. G. Gross, H. G. Vaughan, and E. Valenstein, Electroenceph. Clin. Neurophysiol. 22, 204 (1967).
[Crossref]

Y. Karahashi and S. Goldring, Electroenceph. Clin. Neurophysiol. 20, 600 (1966).
[Crossref]

R. Cooper, A. L. Winter, and W. G. Walter, Electroenceph. Clin. Neurophysiol. 18, 217 (1965);S. S. Fox and J. H. O’Brien, Science 147, 888 (1965);M. Rayport, H. G. Vaughan, and C. L. Rosengart, Electroenceph. Clin. Neurophysiol. 17, 608 (1964).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. (1)

R. M. Copenhaver and G. D. Beinhocker, Invest. Ophthalmol. 2, 393 (1963);R. G. DeVoe, H. Ripps, and H. G. Vaughan, Vision Res. 8, 135 (1968);W. J. Rietveld, W. E. M. Tordoir, and J. W. Duyff, Acta Physiol. Pharmacol. Neerl. 13, 330 (1965).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Exptl. Psychol. (1)

R. M. Boynton and L. A. Riggs, J. Exptl. Psychol. 42, 217 (1951);R. Boynton, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 442 (1953).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Gen. Physiol. (1)

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[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (4)

J. Physiol. (London) (3)

E. D. Adrian, J. Physiol. (London) 105, 24 (1946);E. Dodt, Nature 168, 738 (1951);H. Bornschein and G. Schubert, Z. Biol. 106, 229 (1953).
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E. D. Adrian, J. Physiol. (London) 104, 84 (1945);R. Granit, Receptors and Sensory Perception (Yale University Press, New Haven, 1955).

D. H. Hubel and T. N. Wiesel, J. Physiol. (London) 195, 215 (1968).

Nature (5)

W. A. Cobb, H. B. Morton, and G. Ettlinger, Nature 216, 1123 (1967).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. P. Johnson and T. N. Cornsweet, Nature 174, 614 (1954);J. Armington, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 1058 (1955).
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E. D. Adrian, Nature 154, 361 (1944).
[Crossref]

K. T. Brown and M. Murakami, Nature 201, 626 (1964).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. A. Cone, Nature 204, 736 (1964).
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Proc. Soc. Exptl. Biol. Med. (1)

L. A. Riggs, Proc. Soc. Exptl. Biol. Med. 48, 204 (1941).
[Crossref]

Science (3)

M. Haider, P. Spong, and D. B. Lindsley, Science 145, 180 (1964);P. Spong, M. Haider, and D. B. Lindsley, Science 148, 395 (1965).
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L. A. Riggs, E. P. Johnson, and A. M. L. Schick, Science 144, 567 (1964).
[Crossref]

G. Wald, Science 101, 653 (1945).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vision Res. (3)

C. E. Sternheim and L. A. Riggs, Vision Res. 8, 25 (1968).
[Crossref]

L. A. Riggs and P. Whittle, Vision Res. 7, 441 (1967);D. Lehmann, G. W. Beeler, and D. H. Fender, Nature 215, 204 (1967).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. A. Burkhardt and L. A. Riggs, Vision Res. 7, 453 (1967).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (10)

J. L. Brown, Ref. 9, p. 39.

J. B. Siegfried, Spectral Sensitivity of the Human Visual System as Measured from Both Evoked Cortical Potentials and Psychophysical Responses, Ph.D. dissertation, Brown University (1967).

J. H. Jacobson, Clinical Electroretinography (Charles C Thomas, Springfield, Ill., 1961).

L. Bergamini and B. Bergamasco, Cortical Evoked Potentials in Man (Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, Ill., 1967);R. M. Harter and C. T. White, Vision Res. 8, 701 (1968);W. J. Rietveld, W. E. M. Tordoir, J. R. B. Hagenouw, J. A. Lubbers, and A. C. Spoor, Acta Physiol. Pharmacol. Neerl. 14, 259 (1967);R. Spehlmann, Electroenceph. Clin. Neurophysiol. 19, 560 (1965);H. Spekreijse, Analysis of E. E. G. Responses in Man, thesis, University of Amsterdam (1966).
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R. Granit, in The Eye, H. Davson, Ed. (Academic Press Inc., New York, 1962), Vol. II, p. 537.

R. Granit, Sensory Mechanisms of the Retina (Oxford University Press, New York, 1947).

A. Kohlrausch, in Handbuch der normalen und pathologischen Physiologie, A. Bethe, G. von Bergmann, G. Embden, and A. Ellinger, Eds. (Springer Verlag, Berlin, 1931), Vol. XII, Sec. 2, p. 1394.

L. A. Riggs, in Vision and Visual Perception, C. H. Graham, Ed. (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1965), p. 81.

F. Bremer, in Sensory Communications, W. A. Rosenblith, Ed. (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1961);O. D. Creutzfeld, S. Watanabe, and H. D. Lux, Electroenceph. Clin. Neurophysiol. 20, 1 (1966).
[Crossref]

R. Elul, in Data Acquisition and Processing in Biology and Medicine (Pergamon Press Inc., New York, 1968), Vol. V, p. 93.
[Crossref]

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Figures (10)

F. 1
F. 1

Equipment used for the recording of signals evoked by light in the human retina and occipital cortex.

F. 2
F. 2

Head model showing positions of recording electrodes relative to the eye and brain.

F. 3
F. 3

Early receptor potential records from the human eye in response to intense flashes of light. (Unpublished records furnished through the kindness of Dr. E. Bruce Goldstein of Harvard University, Biological Laboratories, and Dr. Eliot Berson of the Department of Ophthalmology, Harvard Medical School.)

F. 4
F. 4

Relative density of rods—and cones‐‐‐‐along a horizontal meridian of the human eye. [From Brown.26 Data from T. Wertheim, Z. Psychol. 7, 172 (1894) and G. A. Osterberg, Acta Ophthalmol. (Copenhagen) Suppl. 7, 1 (1935).] Relative visual acuity –‐–.

F. 5
F. 5

Stripe pattern used to evoke retinal and occipital responses. The central fixation point × and the circular edge of the field remain stationary. At one instant, the stripes in position a are of wavelength A while the stripes at b are of wavelength B. At the next instant, the wavelengths are interchanged so that the a stripes are of wavelength B and the b stripes of wavelength A. The alternation of wavelengths within each stripe results in a corresponding stimulation of the cone receptors lying within that region of the stimulus field. Responses produced in this way are shown in Fig. 6.

F. 6
F. 6

Samples of electrical responses of the eye to stimulation by the alternating-stripe pattern. Each record represents an analysis time of 0.5 sec and shows the responses to large shifts of wavelength (from 450 to 660 nm) occurring at the rate of 10.7 alternations per sec. The figure beside each record indicates the number of sweeps of the computer (Mnemotron, Computer of Average Transients). The bottom line indicates the temporal sequence of wavelength alternation.

F. 7
F. 7

Representation of the visual field on the occipital cortex. The symbols used for various regions of the visual field on the right also designate the corresponding portions of the striate area on the left. Note that a relatively small region at the center of the field accounts for most of the posterior pole of the occipital surface. This is the part of the visual-projection area that is nearest to a scalp electrode in the position shown in Fig. 1. [From G. Holmes, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) 132B, 348 (1945).]

F. 8
F. 8

Curves showing changes of wavelength (Δλ) to meet various criteria of detectability throughout the spectrum Cs′ CR : VECP data for subjects S and R. PR and PS: psychophysical data on hue shift for subjects R and S. DW Hue-discrimination curve of W. D. Wright and F. H. G. Pitt, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 46, 459 (1934). E: Curve derived from ERG data of Riggs et al.24 (From Riggs and Sternheim.38)

F. 9
F. 9

Records of VECP under conditions of binocular rivalry. See text for details. (From Cobb et al.31)

F. 10
F. 10

Records of VECP for each of four subjects viewing a checkerboard pattern through spherical lenses of +6, +3, +1, 0, −1, −3, and −6 diopters power. An indication of the reliability is the fact that the three or more separate tracings recorded under each condition exhibit nearly the same amplitude and wave form. (From Harter and White.28).