Abstract

The effects of spatial patterns on the sine-wave flicker sensitivity are explored with sharp and blurred edges, circular and rectilinear targets having various flickering and nonflickering areas, and gratings of various spatial frequencies with adjacent bars flickering in opposite phases. The results are consistent with pattern responses studied electro-physiologically by Spekreijse, Riggs, and others. Pattern effects (as opposed to area effects) are confined to frequencies below 10 Hz, and can be explained in terms of the temporal characteristics of lateral inhibition. Earlier differences between the flicker data of deLange and those of Kelly are resolved on this basis, and a response function is calculated for the cross-connecting filters of the inhibiting network.

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  1. D. H. Kelly, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 730 (1959).
  2. H. deLange, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 777 (1958).
  3. D. H. Kelly, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 422 (1961).
  4. D. H. Kelly, Doc. Ophthalmol. 18, 16 (1964).
  5. D. H. Kelly, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 747 (1961).
  6. D. C. West, Opt. Acta 15, 317 (1968).
  7. D. C. West, Vision Res. 8, 719 (1968).
  8. U. T. Keesey, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 728A (1968). Also see Ref. 4, p. 19.
  9. G. W. Hughes and L. Maffei, J. Neurophysiol. 29, 333 (1966).
  10. F. Ratliff, B. W. Knight, J. Toyoda, and H. K. Hartline, Science 158, 392 (1967).
  11. L. Maffei and R. E. Poppele, Vision Res. 8, 229 (1968).
  12. J. G. Robson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1141 (1966).
  13. D. H. Kelly, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 728A (1968).
  14. L. A. Riggs, E. P. Johnson, and A. M. L. Schick, Science 144, 567 (1964).
  15. L. H. van der Tweel and H. Spekreijse, in Tue Clinical Value of Electroretinography, ISCERG Symnposium, Ghzent 1966 (Karger, New York-Basel, 1968), p. 83.
  16. D. H. Kelly, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1628 (1966).
  17. J. Levinson, Doc. Opthalmol. 18, 36 (1964).
  18. F. W. Campbell and J. G. Robson, J. Physiol. (London) 197, 551 (1968).
  19. D. H. Hubel and T. N. Wiesel, J. Physiol. (London) 154, 572 (1960).
  20. H. Spekreijse, thesis, University of Amsterdam, Netherlands (1966).
  21. E. P. Johnson, L. A. Riggs, and A. M. L. Schick, in Clinical Electroretinography Symposium, 1964, Vision Res. Suppl. 1 (1966), p. 75.
  22. For a comparative discussion of various neural-network models, see F. Ratliff, Mach Bands (Holden-Day, Inc., San Francisco, 1965).
  23. An arbitrary phase assumption of some kind is necessary, since we have only amplitude data. This one avoids the necessity of assuming any specific phase function, but is more realistic than assuming that φ= 0 (which would lead to the same result). However, the phase lag may be small in both channels (at the low frequencies we are considering), so that any difference would cause only a second-order error of this assumption. (Otherwise, perhaps it would not yield such a plausible amplitude response.)
  24. D. H. Kelly, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 89 (1962).

Campbell, F. W.

F. W. Campbell and J. G. Robson, J. Physiol. (London) 197, 551 (1968).

deLange, H.

H. deLange, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 777 (1958).

Hartline, H. K.

F. Ratliff, B. W. Knight, J. Toyoda, and H. K. Hartline, Science 158, 392 (1967).

Hubel, D. H.

D. H. Hubel and T. N. Wiesel, J. Physiol. (London) 154, 572 (1960).

Hughes, G. W.

G. W. Hughes and L. Maffei, J. Neurophysiol. 29, 333 (1966).

Johnson, E. P.

L. A. Riggs, E. P. Johnson, and A. M. L. Schick, Science 144, 567 (1964).

E. P. Johnson, L. A. Riggs, and A. M. L. Schick, in Clinical Electroretinography Symposium, 1964, Vision Res. Suppl. 1 (1966), p. 75.

Keesey, U. T.

U. T. Keesey, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 728A (1968). Also see Ref. 4, p. 19.

Kelly, D. H.

D. H. Kelly, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 730 (1959).

D. H. Kelly, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 422 (1961).

D. H. Kelly, Doc. Ophthalmol. 18, 16 (1964).

D. H. Kelly, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 747 (1961).

D. H. Kelly, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 728A (1968).

D. H. Kelly, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 89 (1962).

D. H. Kelly, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1628 (1966).

Knight, B. W.

F. Ratliff, B. W. Knight, J. Toyoda, and H. K. Hartline, Science 158, 392 (1967).

Levinson, J.

J. Levinson, Doc. Opthalmol. 18, 36 (1964).

Maffei, L.

L. Maffei and R. E. Poppele, Vision Res. 8, 229 (1968).

G. W. Hughes and L. Maffei, J. Neurophysiol. 29, 333 (1966).

Poppele, R. E.

L. Maffei and R. E. Poppele, Vision Res. 8, 229 (1968).

Ratliff, F.

F. Ratliff, B. W. Knight, J. Toyoda, and H. K. Hartline, Science 158, 392 (1967).

For a comparative discussion of various neural-network models, see F. Ratliff, Mach Bands (Holden-Day, Inc., San Francisco, 1965).

Riggs, L. A.

E. P. Johnson, L. A. Riggs, and A. M. L. Schick, in Clinical Electroretinography Symposium, 1964, Vision Res. Suppl. 1 (1966), p. 75.

L. A. Riggs, E. P. Johnson, and A. M. L. Schick, Science 144, 567 (1964).

Robson, J. G.

J. G. Robson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1141 (1966).

F. W. Campbell and J. G. Robson, J. Physiol. (London) 197, 551 (1968).

Schick, A. M. L.

L. A. Riggs, E. P. Johnson, and A. M. L. Schick, Science 144, 567 (1964).

E. P. Johnson, L. A. Riggs, and A. M. L. Schick, in Clinical Electroretinography Symposium, 1964, Vision Res. Suppl. 1 (1966), p. 75.

Spekreijse, H.

L. H. van der Tweel and H. Spekreijse, in Tue Clinical Value of Electroretinography, ISCERG Symnposium, Ghzent 1966 (Karger, New York-Basel, 1968), p. 83.

H. Spekreijse, thesis, University of Amsterdam, Netherlands (1966).

Toyoda, J.

F. Ratliff, B. W. Knight, J. Toyoda, and H. K. Hartline, Science 158, 392 (1967).

van der Tweel, L. H.

L. H. van der Tweel and H. Spekreijse, in Tue Clinical Value of Electroretinography, ISCERG Symnposium, Ghzent 1966 (Karger, New York-Basel, 1968), p. 83.

West, D. C.

D. C. West, Opt. Acta 15, 317 (1968).

D. C. West, Vision Res. 8, 719 (1968).

Wiesel, T. N.

D. H. Hubel and T. N. Wiesel, J. Physiol. (London) 154, 572 (1960).

Other

D. H. Kelly, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 730 (1959).

H. deLange, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 777 (1958).

D. H. Kelly, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 422 (1961).

D. H. Kelly, Doc. Ophthalmol. 18, 16 (1964).

D. H. Kelly, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 747 (1961).

D. C. West, Opt. Acta 15, 317 (1968).

D. C. West, Vision Res. 8, 719 (1968).

U. T. Keesey, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 728A (1968). Also see Ref. 4, p. 19.

G. W. Hughes and L. Maffei, J. Neurophysiol. 29, 333 (1966).

F. Ratliff, B. W. Knight, J. Toyoda, and H. K. Hartline, Science 158, 392 (1967).

L. Maffei and R. E. Poppele, Vision Res. 8, 229 (1968).

J. G. Robson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1141 (1966).

D. H. Kelly, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 728A (1968).

L. A. Riggs, E. P. Johnson, and A. M. L. Schick, Science 144, 567 (1964).

L. H. van der Tweel and H. Spekreijse, in Tue Clinical Value of Electroretinography, ISCERG Symnposium, Ghzent 1966 (Karger, New York-Basel, 1968), p. 83.

D. H. Kelly, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1628 (1966).

J. Levinson, Doc. Opthalmol. 18, 36 (1964).

F. W. Campbell and J. G. Robson, J. Physiol. (London) 197, 551 (1968).

D. H. Hubel and T. N. Wiesel, J. Physiol. (London) 154, 572 (1960).

H. Spekreijse, thesis, University of Amsterdam, Netherlands (1966).

E. P. Johnson, L. A. Riggs, and A. M. L. Schick, in Clinical Electroretinography Symposium, 1964, Vision Res. Suppl. 1 (1966), p. 75.

For a comparative discussion of various neural-network models, see F. Ratliff, Mach Bands (Holden-Day, Inc., San Francisco, 1965).

An arbitrary phase assumption of some kind is necessary, since we have only amplitude data. This one avoids the necessity of assuming any specific phase function, but is more realistic than assuming that φ= 0 (which would lead to the same result). However, the phase lag may be small in both channels (at the low frequencies we are considering), so that any difference would cause only a second-order error of this assumption. (Otherwise, perhaps it would not yield such a plausible amplitude response.)

D. H. Kelly, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 89 (1962).

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