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  1. R. D. Luce, in Handbook of Mathematical Psychology, R. D. Luce, R. G. Bush, and E. Galanter, Eds. (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1963); H. B. Barlow, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 634 (1956); J. Nachmias and R. M. Steinman, 53, 1206 (1963); 54, 554E (1964).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. Physiological sources of dark noise have been found in the spontaneous discrete events of the photoreceptor of Limulus[M. Fuortes and S. Yeandle, J. Gen. Physiol. 47, 443 (1964)]and in the maintained spike activity of the ganglion cell of the dark-adapted cat’s retina [H. Barlow, R. Fitzhugh, and S. W. Kuffler, J. Physiol. (London) 137, 327 (1956)]. However, the relationship of these observations to psychophysical measurements is uncertain.
  3. J. Krauskopf and R. Srebro, Science 150, 1477 (1965).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. W. A. H. Rushton, J. Physiol. (London) 181, 645 (1965). An increase of the “quantum-to-spike ratio” following light adaptation was reported by Barlow [H. B. Barlow, Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 30, 539 (1966)] in the ganglion-cell output of the cat’s retina. This represents a physiological change of G resulting from adaptation.
    [Crossref]
  5. The luminance of the adapting beam was low enough to avoid after-images. The fixation annulus was eliminated in some light-adaptation experiments without appreciable effect on the results.
  6. Occasionally, detected flashes appeared which were described as “partly green, partly red” (spatially separated) and two observers reported temporally separated red-green single flashes. These mixed events were infrequent and were usually associated with a dominant hue. Subjects were instructed to name them according to the dominant hue. The mixed events probably relate to the 15′ target size and 30-msec flash duration used. They did not appear when the target size was 1′ and flash duration 1 msec. There were also considerably fewer white flashes when the larger target size and flash duration were used.
  7. Correlation coefficients between the percent of flashes correctly detected and reported as green and percent of false positive responses called green in any session were not significant.

1965 (2)

J. Krauskopf and R. Srebro, Science 150, 1477 (1965).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. A. H. Rushton, J. Physiol. (London) 181, 645 (1965). An increase of the “quantum-to-spike ratio” following light adaptation was reported by Barlow [H. B. Barlow, Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 30, 539 (1966)] in the ganglion-cell output of the cat’s retina. This represents a physiological change of G resulting from adaptation.
[Crossref]

1964 (1)

Physiological sources of dark noise have been found in the spontaneous discrete events of the photoreceptor of Limulus[M. Fuortes and S. Yeandle, J. Gen. Physiol. 47, 443 (1964)]and in the maintained spike activity of the ganglion cell of the dark-adapted cat’s retina [H. Barlow, R. Fitzhugh, and S. W. Kuffler, J. Physiol. (London) 137, 327 (1956)]. However, the relationship of these observations to psychophysical measurements is uncertain.

Fuortes, M.

Physiological sources of dark noise have been found in the spontaneous discrete events of the photoreceptor of Limulus[M. Fuortes and S. Yeandle, J. Gen. Physiol. 47, 443 (1964)]and in the maintained spike activity of the ganglion cell of the dark-adapted cat’s retina [H. Barlow, R. Fitzhugh, and S. W. Kuffler, J. Physiol. (London) 137, 327 (1956)]. However, the relationship of these observations to psychophysical measurements is uncertain.

Krauskopf, J.

J. Krauskopf and R. Srebro, Science 150, 1477 (1965).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Luce, R. D.

R. D. Luce, in Handbook of Mathematical Psychology, R. D. Luce, R. G. Bush, and E. Galanter, Eds. (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1963); H. B. Barlow, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 634 (1956); J. Nachmias and R. M. Steinman, 53, 1206 (1963); 54, 554E (1964).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rushton, W. A. H.

W. A. H. Rushton, J. Physiol. (London) 181, 645 (1965). An increase of the “quantum-to-spike ratio” following light adaptation was reported by Barlow [H. B. Barlow, Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 30, 539 (1966)] in the ganglion-cell output of the cat’s retina. This represents a physiological change of G resulting from adaptation.
[Crossref]

Srebro, R.

J. Krauskopf and R. Srebro, Science 150, 1477 (1965).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yeandle, S.

Physiological sources of dark noise have been found in the spontaneous discrete events of the photoreceptor of Limulus[M. Fuortes and S. Yeandle, J. Gen. Physiol. 47, 443 (1964)]and in the maintained spike activity of the ganglion cell of the dark-adapted cat’s retina [H. Barlow, R. Fitzhugh, and S. W. Kuffler, J. Physiol. (London) 137, 327 (1956)]. However, the relationship of these observations to psychophysical measurements is uncertain.

J. Gen. Physiol. (1)

Physiological sources of dark noise have been found in the spontaneous discrete events of the photoreceptor of Limulus[M. Fuortes and S. Yeandle, J. Gen. Physiol. 47, 443 (1964)]and in the maintained spike activity of the ganglion cell of the dark-adapted cat’s retina [H. Barlow, R. Fitzhugh, and S. W. Kuffler, J. Physiol. (London) 137, 327 (1956)]. However, the relationship of these observations to psychophysical measurements is uncertain.

J. Physiol. (London) (1)

W. A. H. Rushton, J. Physiol. (London) 181, 645 (1965). An increase of the “quantum-to-spike ratio” following light adaptation was reported by Barlow [H. B. Barlow, Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 30, 539 (1966)] in the ganglion-cell output of the cat’s retina. This represents a physiological change of G resulting from adaptation.
[Crossref]

Science (1)

J. Krauskopf and R. Srebro, Science 150, 1477 (1965).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (4)

R. D. Luce, in Handbook of Mathematical Psychology, R. D. Luce, R. G. Bush, and E. Galanter, Eds. (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1963); H. B. Barlow, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 634 (1956); J. Nachmias and R. M. Steinman, 53, 1206 (1963); 54, 554E (1964).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

The luminance of the adapting beam was low enough to avoid after-images. The fixation annulus was eliminated in some light-adaptation experiments without appreciable effect on the results.

Occasionally, detected flashes appeared which were described as “partly green, partly red” (spatially separated) and two observers reported temporally separated red-green single flashes. These mixed events were infrequent and were usually associated with a dominant hue. Subjects were instructed to name them according to the dominant hue. The mixed events probably relate to the 15′ target size and 30-msec flash duration used. They did not appear when the target size was 1′ and flash duration 1 msec. There were also considerably fewer white flashes when the larger target size and flash duration were used.

Correlation coefficients between the percent of flashes correctly detected and reported as green and percent of false positive responses called green in any session were not significant.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Percent of correctly detected flashes reported as red (●) or green (×), as a function of the flash wavelength. The frequency of seeing was 50% at all wavelengths. Top curves are for the dark-adapted state. Bottom curves are for adaptation to a red light.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The percent of correctly detected flashes reported as green, as a function of the percent error and flash wavelength. Top, dark adapted. Bottom, after exposure to a red adapting light. The estimate for the false positives and its standard error are shown at 50% response error in each. Two wavelengths are shown for each of two adaptive conditions. These are 545 mμ (▲) and 585 mμ (×) for the dark-adapted condition, and 605 mμ (▲) and 640 mμ for the red adapted.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table I Mean percent red false positives for three adaptive states. The mean probability of error and mean percent of flashes correctly detected and reported as red were adjusted to be approximately equal, by selection of appropriate flash wavelengths and luminances. Double arrows indicate significant differences at less than 1% level (student T test). Total number of false positives was approximately 2000. Total number of correctly detected flashes was approximately 4800. Standard errors are indicated.