Abstract

Theoretical and experimental studies of the electromagnetic coupling between parallel, passive, glass-fiber waveguides and active (Nd3+-doped laser) resonators are reported. Predicted evanescent-wave coupling strengths are verified to within a factor of two. Far-field interference patterns of these phase-locked, optical waveguides manifest a high degree of coherence and give the predicted asymmetry. Coupling of two fiber lasers is also demonstrated through common-cavity end-mirror reflectors; a high-frequency self-<i>Q</i>-switching action is found when the fiber ends are not rigidly mounted.

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  1. S. E. Miller, Bell System Tech. J. 33, 661 (1954).
  2. W. H. Louisell, Coupled Mode and Parametric Electronics (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1960).
  3. S. A. Schelkunoff, Electromagnetic Fields (Blaisdell Publishing Co., New York, 1963).
  4. C. C. Johnson, Field and Wave Electrodynamics (McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 1965).
  5. E. Snitzer, in Advances in Quantum Electronics, J. R. Singer, Ed. (Columbia University Press, New York, 1961), p. 348.
  6. E. Snitzer, in Optical Processing of Information, D. K. Pollock, C. J. Koester, and J. T. Tippett, Eds. (Spartan Books, Inc., Baltimore, 1963), p. 61.
  7. N. S. Kapany, G. M. Burgvald, and J. J. Burke, in Optical and Electro-Optical Information Processing, J. T. Tippett, D. A. Berkowitz, L. C. Clapp, C. J. Koester, and A. Vanderburgh, Jr., Eds. (MIT Press, Cambridge, 1965), p. 305.
  8. N. S. Kapany, J. J. Burke, and K. L. Frame, Appl. Opt. 4, 1534 (1965).
  9. M. F. Bracey, A. L. Cullen, E. F. F. Gillespie, and J. A. Staniforth, IRE Trans. AP-7, S219 (1959).
  10. A. L. Jones, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 261 (1965)
  11. J. J. Burke, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 1056 (1967).
  12. C. J. Koester and C. H. Swope, in Ref. 7, p. 253.
  13. E. Snitzer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 491 (1961).
  14. E. Snitzer and H. Osterberg, J. Opt. Am. 51, 499 (1961).
  15. N. S. Kapany and J. J. Burke, J. Opt. Am. 51, 1067 (1961).
  16. E. Snitzer, J. Appl. Phys. 32, 36 (1961).
  17. Snitzer5,6 offers a substantially different interpretation of the same theory for this case, suggesting that the forward direction is either a maximum or a minimum. His published photographic data,5,6 however, may be interpreted as manifesting the kind of asymmetry that we would expect.
  18. Similar clustering was observed by H. C. Nedderman, Y. C. Kiang, and F. C. Unterleitner, Proc. IRE 50, 7 (1962) with a ruby crystal operating in an inhomogeneous magnetic field.

Bracey, M. F.

M. F. Bracey, A. L. Cullen, E. F. F. Gillespie, and J. A. Staniforth, IRE Trans. AP-7, S219 (1959).

Burgvald, G. M.

N. S. Kapany, G. M. Burgvald, and J. J. Burke, in Optical and Electro-Optical Information Processing, J. T. Tippett, D. A. Berkowitz, L. C. Clapp, C. J. Koester, and A. Vanderburgh, Jr., Eds. (MIT Press, Cambridge, 1965), p. 305.

Burke, J. J.

N. S. Kapany, G. M. Burgvald, and J. J. Burke, in Optical and Electro-Optical Information Processing, J. T. Tippett, D. A. Berkowitz, L. C. Clapp, C. J. Koester, and A. Vanderburgh, Jr., Eds. (MIT Press, Cambridge, 1965), p. 305.

N. S. Kapany, J. J. Burke, and K. L. Frame, Appl. Opt. 4, 1534 (1965).

J. J. Burke, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 1056 (1967).

N. S. Kapany and J. J. Burke, J. Opt. Am. 51, 1067 (1961).

Cullen, A. L.

M. F. Bracey, A. L. Cullen, E. F. F. Gillespie, and J. A. Staniforth, IRE Trans. AP-7, S219 (1959).

Frame, K. L.

N. S. Kapany, J. J. Burke, and K. L. Frame, Appl. Opt. 4, 1534 (1965).

Gillespie, E. F. F.

M. F. Bracey, A. L. Cullen, E. F. F. Gillespie, and J. A. Staniforth, IRE Trans. AP-7, S219 (1959).

Johnson, C. C.

C. C. Johnson, Field and Wave Electrodynamics (McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 1965).

Jones, A. L.

A. L. Jones, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 261 (1965)

Kapany, N. S.

N. S. Kapany and J. J. Burke, J. Opt. Am. 51, 1067 (1961).

N. S. Kapany, J. J. Burke, and K. L. Frame, Appl. Opt. 4, 1534 (1965).

N. S. Kapany, G. M. Burgvald, and J. J. Burke, in Optical and Electro-Optical Information Processing, J. T. Tippett, D. A. Berkowitz, L. C. Clapp, C. J. Koester, and A. Vanderburgh, Jr., Eds. (MIT Press, Cambridge, 1965), p. 305.

Kiang, Y. C.

Similar clustering was observed by H. C. Nedderman, Y. C. Kiang, and F. C. Unterleitner, Proc. IRE 50, 7 (1962) with a ruby crystal operating in an inhomogeneous magnetic field.

Koester, C. J.

C. J. Koester and C. H. Swope, in Ref. 7, p. 253.

Louisell, W. H.

W. H. Louisell, Coupled Mode and Parametric Electronics (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1960).

Miller, S. E.

S. E. Miller, Bell System Tech. J. 33, 661 (1954).

Nedderman, H. C.

Similar clustering was observed by H. C. Nedderman, Y. C. Kiang, and F. C. Unterleitner, Proc. IRE 50, 7 (1962) with a ruby crystal operating in an inhomogeneous magnetic field.

Osterberg, H.

E. Snitzer and H. Osterberg, J. Opt. Am. 51, 499 (1961).

Schelkunoff, S. A.

S. A. Schelkunoff, Electromagnetic Fields (Blaisdell Publishing Co., New York, 1963).

Snitzer, E.

E. Snitzer, in Advances in Quantum Electronics, J. R. Singer, Ed. (Columbia University Press, New York, 1961), p. 348.

E. Snitzer, in Optical Processing of Information, D. K. Pollock, C. J. Koester, and J. T. Tippett, Eds. (Spartan Books, Inc., Baltimore, 1963), p. 61.

E. Snitzer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 491 (1961).

E. Snitzer and H. Osterberg, J. Opt. Am. 51, 499 (1961).

E. Snitzer, J. Appl. Phys. 32, 36 (1961).

Staniforth, J. A.

M. F. Bracey, A. L. Cullen, E. F. F. Gillespie, and J. A. Staniforth, IRE Trans. AP-7, S219 (1959).

Swope, C. H.

C. J. Koester and C. H. Swope, in Ref. 7, p. 253.

Unterleitner, F. C.

Similar clustering was observed by H. C. Nedderman, Y. C. Kiang, and F. C. Unterleitner, Proc. IRE 50, 7 (1962) with a ruby crystal operating in an inhomogeneous magnetic field.

Other (18)

S. E. Miller, Bell System Tech. J. 33, 661 (1954).

W. H. Louisell, Coupled Mode and Parametric Electronics (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1960).

S. A. Schelkunoff, Electromagnetic Fields (Blaisdell Publishing Co., New York, 1963).

C. C. Johnson, Field and Wave Electrodynamics (McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 1965).

E. Snitzer, in Advances in Quantum Electronics, J. R. Singer, Ed. (Columbia University Press, New York, 1961), p. 348.

E. Snitzer, in Optical Processing of Information, D. K. Pollock, C. J. Koester, and J. T. Tippett, Eds. (Spartan Books, Inc., Baltimore, 1963), p. 61.

N. S. Kapany, G. M. Burgvald, and J. J. Burke, in Optical and Electro-Optical Information Processing, J. T. Tippett, D. A. Berkowitz, L. C. Clapp, C. J. Koester, and A. Vanderburgh, Jr., Eds. (MIT Press, Cambridge, 1965), p. 305.

N. S. Kapany, J. J. Burke, and K. L. Frame, Appl. Opt. 4, 1534 (1965).

M. F. Bracey, A. L. Cullen, E. F. F. Gillespie, and J. A. Staniforth, IRE Trans. AP-7, S219 (1959).

A. L. Jones, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 261 (1965)

J. J. Burke, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 1056 (1967).

C. J. Koester and C. H. Swope, in Ref. 7, p. 253.

E. Snitzer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 491 (1961).

E. Snitzer and H. Osterberg, J. Opt. Am. 51, 499 (1961).

N. S. Kapany and J. J. Burke, J. Opt. Am. 51, 1067 (1961).

E. Snitzer, J. Appl. Phys. 32, 36 (1961).

Snitzer5,6 offers a substantially different interpretation of the same theory for this case, suggesting that the forward direction is either a maximum or a minimum. His published photographic data,5,6 however, may be interpreted as manifesting the kind of asymmetry that we would expect.

Similar clustering was observed by H. C. Nedderman, Y. C. Kiang, and F. C. Unterleitner, Proc. IRE 50, 7 (1962) with a ruby crystal operating in an inhomogeneous magnetic field.

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