Abstract

<p>Various techniques for fabricating optical waveguides for laser-oriented applications are being studied. A technique utilizing radiation-induced changes of refractive index in optical materials is presented; the particular waveguide considered is a fused-silica slab that has been irradiated with protons to produce a channel with a refractive index slightly higher than the unirradiated silica. This high-index channel serves as the waveguide core and the surrounding unirradiated region as the cladding.</p><p>Formulas for determining the size and shape of the high-index channel and the amount of index change have been developed. The primary waveguide parameters, core size, and refractive-index difference, may be adjusted by controlling proton energy and dosage, respectively. The technique is useful for formation of waveguides with core widths of 1 to 50 µ and index differences of 0.01 to 0.0001; it is particularly suitable for forming complex arrays of waveguides and waveguide components.</p><p>Preliminary experimental work has used 1.5-MeV protons and dosages of 10<sup>14</sup>to 10<sup>17</sup> protons/cm<sup>2</sup>. Light propagation has been observed in waveguides formed by this technique.</p>

© 1968 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. A. Kaplan, Proc. IEEE 51, 1144 (1963).
  2. D. W. Wilmot and E. R. Schineller, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 839 (1966).
  3. R. P. Flam and H. W. Red lien, Jr., Kroc. IEEE 55, 1750 (1967).
  4. E. R. Schineller, Microwaves 7, 77 (1968).
  5. R. P. Flam and E. R. Machinelike, Kroc. IEEE 56, 195 (1968).
  6. I. H. Malitson, M. J. Dodge, and M. E. Gonshery, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 1583A (1965).
  7. M. J. Dodge, I. H. Malitson, and M. E. Gonshery, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1432A (1966).
  8. W. Primak, Phys. Rev. 110, 1240 (1958).
  9. W. Primak and M. Bohmann, in Progress in Ceramic Science, Vol. 2, J. E. Burke, Ed. (Pergamon Press, Inc., New York, 1962), pp. 103–181.
  10. R. L. Hines and R. Arndt, Phys. Rev. 119, 623 (1960).
  11. R. L. Hines, J. Appl. Phys. 28, 587 (1957).
  12. W. Primak (private communication).
  13. J. A. Baicker, H. Flicker, and J. Vilms, Appl. Phys. Letters 2, 104 (1963).
  14. American institute of Physics Handbook, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 1963), pp. 8–20 to 8–47.

Arndt, R.

R. L. Hines and R. Arndt, Phys. Rev. 119, 623 (1960).

Baicker, J. A.

J. A. Baicker, H. Flicker, and J. Vilms, Appl. Phys. Letters 2, 104 (1963).

Bohmann, M.

W. Primak and M. Bohmann, in Progress in Ceramic Science, Vol. 2, J. E. Burke, Ed. (Pergamon Press, Inc., New York, 1962), pp. 103–181.

Dodge, M. J.

M. J. Dodge, I. H. Malitson, and M. E. Gonshery, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1432A (1966).

I. H. Malitson, M. J. Dodge, and M. E. Gonshery, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 1583A (1965).

Flam, R. P.

R. P. Flam and H. W. Red lien, Jr., Kroc. IEEE 55, 1750 (1967).

R. P. Flam and E. R. Machinelike, Kroc. IEEE 56, 195 (1968).

Flicker, H.

J. A. Baicker, H. Flicker, and J. Vilms, Appl. Phys. Letters 2, 104 (1963).

Gonshery, M. E.

M. J. Dodge, I. H. Malitson, and M. E. Gonshery, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1432A (1966).

I. H. Malitson, M. J. Dodge, and M. E. Gonshery, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 1583A (1965).

Hines, R. L.

R. L. Hines and R. Arndt, Phys. Rev. 119, 623 (1960).

R. L. Hines, J. Appl. Phys. 28, 587 (1957).

Kaplan, R. A.

R. A. Kaplan, Proc. IEEE 51, 1144 (1963).

Machinelike, E. R.

R. P. Flam and E. R. Machinelike, Kroc. IEEE 56, 195 (1968).

Malitson, I. H.

M. J. Dodge, I. H. Malitson, and M. E. Gonshery, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1432A (1966).

I. H. Malitson, M. J. Dodge, and M. E. Gonshery, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 1583A (1965).

Primak, W.

W. Primak, Phys. Rev. 110, 1240 (1958).

W. Primak and M. Bohmann, in Progress in Ceramic Science, Vol. 2, J. E. Burke, Ed. (Pergamon Press, Inc., New York, 1962), pp. 103–181.

W. Primak (private communication).

Redlien, Jr., H. W.

R. P. Flam and H. W. Red lien, Jr., Kroc. IEEE 55, 1750 (1967).

Schineller, E. R.

E. R. Schineller, Microwaves 7, 77 (1968).

D. W. Wilmot and E. R. Schineller, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 839 (1966).

Vilms, J.

J. A. Baicker, H. Flicker, and J. Vilms, Appl. Phys. Letters 2, 104 (1963).

Wilmot, D. W.

D. W. Wilmot and E. R. Schineller, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 839 (1966).

Other (14)

R. A. Kaplan, Proc. IEEE 51, 1144 (1963).

D. W. Wilmot and E. R. Schineller, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 839 (1966).

R. P. Flam and H. W. Red lien, Jr., Kroc. IEEE 55, 1750 (1967).

E. R. Schineller, Microwaves 7, 77 (1968).

R. P. Flam and E. R. Machinelike, Kroc. IEEE 56, 195 (1968).

I. H. Malitson, M. J. Dodge, and M. E. Gonshery, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 1583A (1965).

M. J. Dodge, I. H. Malitson, and M. E. Gonshery, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1432A (1966).

W. Primak, Phys. Rev. 110, 1240 (1958).

W. Primak and M. Bohmann, in Progress in Ceramic Science, Vol. 2, J. E. Burke, Ed. (Pergamon Press, Inc., New York, 1962), pp. 103–181.

R. L. Hines and R. Arndt, Phys. Rev. 119, 623 (1960).

R. L. Hines, J. Appl. Phys. 28, 587 (1957).

W. Primak (private communication).

J. A. Baicker, H. Flicker, and J. Vilms, Appl. Phys. Letters 2, 104 (1963).

American institute of Physics Handbook, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 1963), pp. 8–20 to 8–47.

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