Abstract

Three observers were shown very small (12’) chromatic stimuli varying in retinal illuminance, duration, and wavelength. The observers named the color and saturation of the stimuli. The results show that when retinal illuminance X time equalled a constant, observers’ color names remained constant; when retinal illuminance X time did not remain constant, color names did not remain constant. As total retinal illuminance was decreased, by decreasing duration, the degree of artificial tritanopia increased.

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References

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  1. A. König, Sitzber. Deut. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, Kl. Math., Phys. Tech., p. 577 (1894).
  2. G. S. Brindley, Physiology of the Retina and the Visual Pathway (E. Arnold Ltd., London, 1960), p. 231.
  3. E. N. Willmer, Nature 153, 774 (1964).
  4. E. N. Willmer and W. D. Wright, Nature 156, 119 (1945).
  5. H. Hartridge, Nature 155, 675 (1954).
  6. L. C. Thomson and W. D. Wright, J. Physiol. (London) 105, 316 (1947).
  7. W. D. Wright, Researches on Normal and Defective Colour Vision (Henry Kimpton, London, 1946), p. 132.
  8. W. D. Wright, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 515 (1952).
  9. D. O. Weitzman and J. A. S. Kinney, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 665 (1967).
  10. S. M. Luria, Am. J. Psychol. 80, 25 (1967).
  11. R. M. Boynton, W. Schafer, and M. E. Neun, Science 145, 666 (1964).
  12. See Ref. 9, p. 669.
  13. See Ref. 10, p. 25; Dr. Luria recently informed me that reanalysis of his data for the 2- and 20-msec conditions shows constant color names. Color names for 300-msec conditions were not the same as the 2- and 20-msec conditions.
  14. See Ref. 2, p. 230.
  15. See Ref. 5, p. 658.

Boynton, R. M.

R. M. Boynton, W. Schafer, and M. E. Neun, Science 145, 666 (1964).

Brindley, G. S.

G. S. Brindley, Physiology of the Retina and the Visual Pathway (E. Arnold Ltd., London, 1960), p. 231.

Hartridge, H.

H. Hartridge, Nature 155, 675 (1954).

Kinney, J. A. S.

D. O. Weitzman and J. A. S. Kinney, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 665 (1967).

König, A.

A. König, Sitzber. Deut. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, Kl. Math., Phys. Tech., p. 577 (1894).

Luria, S. M.

S. M. Luria, Am. J. Psychol. 80, 25 (1967).

Neun, M. E.

R. M. Boynton, W. Schafer, and M. E. Neun, Science 145, 666 (1964).

Schafer, W.

R. M. Boynton, W. Schafer, and M. E. Neun, Science 145, 666 (1964).

Thomson, L. C.

L. C. Thomson and W. D. Wright, J. Physiol. (London) 105, 316 (1947).

Weitzman, D. O.

D. O. Weitzman and J. A. S. Kinney, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 665 (1967).

Willmer, E. N.

E. N. Willmer, Nature 153, 774 (1964).

E. N. Willmer and W. D. Wright, Nature 156, 119 (1945).

Wright, W. D.

E. N. Willmer and W. D. Wright, Nature 156, 119 (1945).

L. C. Thomson and W. D. Wright, J. Physiol. (London) 105, 316 (1947).

W. D. Wright, Researches on Normal and Defective Colour Vision (Henry Kimpton, London, 1946), p. 132.

W. D. Wright, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 515 (1952).

Other (15)

A. König, Sitzber. Deut. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, Kl. Math., Phys. Tech., p. 577 (1894).

G. S. Brindley, Physiology of the Retina and the Visual Pathway (E. Arnold Ltd., London, 1960), p. 231.

E. N. Willmer, Nature 153, 774 (1964).

E. N. Willmer and W. D. Wright, Nature 156, 119 (1945).

H. Hartridge, Nature 155, 675 (1954).

L. C. Thomson and W. D. Wright, J. Physiol. (London) 105, 316 (1947).

W. D. Wright, Researches on Normal and Defective Colour Vision (Henry Kimpton, London, 1946), p. 132.

W. D. Wright, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 515 (1952).

D. O. Weitzman and J. A. S. Kinney, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 665 (1967).

S. M. Luria, Am. J. Psychol. 80, 25 (1967).

R. M. Boynton, W. Schafer, and M. E. Neun, Science 145, 666 (1964).

See Ref. 9, p. 669.

See Ref. 10, p. 25; Dr. Luria recently informed me that reanalysis of his data for the 2- and 20-msec conditions shows constant color names. Color names for 300-msec conditions were not the same as the 2- and 20-msec conditions.

See Ref. 2, p. 230.

See Ref. 5, p. 658.

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