Abstract

Three observers were shown very small (12) chromatic stimuli varying in retinal illuminance, duration, and wavelength. The observers named the color and saturation of the stimuli. The results show that when retinal illuminance × time equalled a constant, observers’ color names remained constant; when retinal illuminance × time did not remain constant, color names did not remain constant. As total retinal illuminance was decreased, by decreasing duration, the degree of artificial tritanopia increased.

© 1968 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. A. König, Sitzber. Deut. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, Kl. Math., Phys. Tech., p. 577 (1894).
  2. G. S. Brindley, Physiology of the Retina and the Visual Pathway (E. Arnold Ltd., London, 1960), p. 231.
  3. E. N. Willmer, Nature 153, 774 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  4. E. N. Willmer and W. D. Wright, Nature 156, 119 (1945).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. Hartridge, Nature 155, 675 (1954).
  6. L. C. Thomson and W. D. Wright, J. Physiol. (London) 105, 316 (1947).
  7. W. D. Wright, Researches on Normal and Defective Colour Vision (Henry Kimpton, London, 1946), p. 132.
  8. W. D. Wright, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 515 (1952).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. O. Weitzman and J. A. S. Kinney, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 665 (1967).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. S. M. Luria, Am. J. Psychol. 80, 25 (1967).
  11. R. M. Boynton, W. Schafer, and M. E. Neun, Science 145, 666 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  12. See Ref. 9, p. 669.
  13. See Ref. 10, p. 25; Dr. Luria recently informed me that reanalysis of his data for the 2- and 20-msec conditions shows constant color names. Color names for 300-msec conditions were not the same as the 2- and 20-msec conditions.
  14. See Ref. 2, p. 230.
  15. See Ref. 5, p. 658.

1967 (2)

1964 (2)

R. M. Boynton, W. Schafer, and M. E. Neun, Science 145, 666 (1964).
[CrossRef]

E. N. Willmer, Nature 153, 774 (1964).
[CrossRef]

1954 (1)

H. Hartridge, Nature 155, 675 (1954).

1952 (1)

W. D. Wright, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 515 (1952).
[CrossRef]

1947 (1)

L. C. Thomson and W. D. Wright, J. Physiol. (London) 105, 316 (1947).

1945 (1)

E. N. Willmer and W. D. Wright, Nature 156, 119 (1945).
[CrossRef]

1894 (1)

A. König, Sitzber. Deut. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, Kl. Math., Phys. Tech., p. 577 (1894).

Boynton, R. M.

R. M. Boynton, W. Schafer, and M. E. Neun, Science 145, 666 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Brindley, G. S.

G. S. Brindley, Physiology of the Retina and the Visual Pathway (E. Arnold Ltd., London, 1960), p. 231.

Hartridge, H.

H. Hartridge, Nature 155, 675 (1954).

Kinney, J. A. S.

König, A.

A. König, Sitzber. Deut. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, Kl. Math., Phys. Tech., p. 577 (1894).

Luria, S. M.

S. M. Luria, Am. J. Psychol. 80, 25 (1967).

Neun, M. E.

R. M. Boynton, W. Schafer, and M. E. Neun, Science 145, 666 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Schafer, W.

R. M. Boynton, W. Schafer, and M. E. Neun, Science 145, 666 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Thomson, L. C.

L. C. Thomson and W. D. Wright, J. Physiol. (London) 105, 316 (1947).

Weitzman, D. O.

Willmer, E. N.

E. N. Willmer, Nature 153, 774 (1964).
[CrossRef]

E. N. Willmer and W. D. Wright, Nature 156, 119 (1945).
[CrossRef]

Wright, W. D.

W. D. Wright, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 515 (1952).
[CrossRef]

L. C. Thomson and W. D. Wright, J. Physiol. (London) 105, 316 (1947).

E. N. Willmer and W. D. Wright, Nature 156, 119 (1945).
[CrossRef]

W. D. Wright, Researches on Normal and Defective Colour Vision (Henry Kimpton, London, 1946), p. 132.

Am. J. Psychol. (1)

S. M. Luria, Am. J. Psychol. 80, 25 (1967).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Physiol. (London) (1)

L. C. Thomson and W. D. Wright, J. Physiol. (London) 105, 316 (1947).

Nature (3)

E. N. Willmer, Nature 153, 774 (1964).
[CrossRef]

E. N. Willmer and W. D. Wright, Nature 156, 119 (1945).
[CrossRef]

H. Hartridge, Nature 155, 675 (1954).

Science (1)

R. M. Boynton, W. Schafer, and M. E. Neun, Science 145, 666 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Sitzber. Deut. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, Kl. Math., Phys. Tech. (1)

A. König, Sitzber. Deut. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, Kl. Math., Phys. Tech., p. 577 (1894).

Other (6)

G. S. Brindley, Physiology of the Retina and the Visual Pathway (E. Arnold Ltd., London, 1960), p. 231.

See Ref. 9, p. 669.

See Ref. 10, p. 25; Dr. Luria recently informed me that reanalysis of his data for the 2- and 20-msec conditions shows constant color names. Color names for 300-msec conditions were not the same as the 2- and 20-msec conditions.

See Ref. 2, p. 230.

See Ref. 5, p. 658.

W. D. Wright, Researches on Normal and Defective Colour Vision (Henry Kimpton, London, 1946), p. 132.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Proportion of primaries used to match spectral hues. (a) Trichromacy, Wright, Ref. 7. (b) Tritanopia, 1°20 field, Wright, Ref. 8. (c) Artificial tritanopia by adaptation to 432 nm, 1° field, Brindiey, Ref. 2. (d) Artificial tritanopia, 20 field, Willmer and Wright, Ref. 4.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Maxwellian-view optical stimulator and fixation target.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Color names as functions of wavelength, luminance, and duration. Constant L × T (left): solid line (——) = 17 td × 50 msec, dashed line (– – – –) = 42.5 td × 20 msec, dash-plus line (—+—+—+) = 85 td × 10 msec. L × T not constant (right): dash–plus line (—+—+—) 42.5 td × 10 msec, dashed line (– – – –) = 42.5 td × 20 msec, dotted line (· · · ·) = 42.5 td × 50 msec, solid line (——) = for NI (top) 42.5 td × 300 msee, for PKK (middle), and YS (bottom) 42.5 td × 5 sec. ○ White, ⋄ Yellow, Δ Green, ● Blue, □ Red.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The average results of three observers for color names white and yellow. See Fig. 3 for symbol explanations.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table I Experimental conditions.

Tables Icon

Table II Color-naming method.

Tables Icon

Table III Summary of analyses of variance.