Abstract

The results of experiments on the x rays emitted by an energetic vacuum spark are presented. X-ray spectroscopic studies show, in addition to the characteristic x-ray lines of the electrode metal, lines originating from very high stages of ionization of the element. In particular, lines of the 1s2–1snp sequence in the helium-like spectra Ti xxi through Ni xxvii, and the 1s–2p transition in Fe xxvi, were observed. Pinhole photography and time-resolved studies of the total x-ray emission indicate that these highly ionized species originate in a small, hot region between the two electrodes, which is produced by a pinch in a plasma of evaporated anode metal.

© 1968 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. U. Feldman, M. Swartz, and L. Cohen, Rev. Sci. Instr. 38, 1372 (1967).
    [Crossref]
  2. U. Feldman, L. Cohen, and M. Swartz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 535 (1967).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. U. Feldman, L. Cohen, and M. Swartz, Astrophys. J. 148, 585 (1967).
    [Crossref]
  4. U. Feldman and L. Cohen, Astrophys. J. 149, 265 (1967).
    [Crossref]
  5. S. K. Händel, Brit. J. Appl. Phys. 14, 181 (1963).
    [Crossref]
  6. S. K. Händel and J. M. Berg, Arkiv Fysik 31, 1 (1965).
  7. P. O. Schörling, Arkiv Fysik 21, 371 (1961).
  8. P. O. Schörling, Arkiv Fysik 19, 47 (1961).
  9. W. M. Neupert, W. Gates, M. Swartz, and R. Young, Astrophys. J. 149, L49 (1967).
    [Crossref]
  10. L. N. Khudyakova, E. K. Gutnikova, and L. V. Tarasova, Soviet Phys.—Tech. Phys. 9, 1572 (1965).
  11. T. N. Lie (private communication) has used a streak camera to photograph a similar spark in visible light. His observations confirm the existence of a multiple pinch effect.

1967 (5)

U. Feldman, L. Cohen, and M. Swartz, Astrophys. J. 148, 585 (1967).
[Crossref]

U. Feldman and L. Cohen, Astrophys. J. 149, 265 (1967).
[Crossref]

W. M. Neupert, W. Gates, M. Swartz, and R. Young, Astrophys. J. 149, L49 (1967).
[Crossref]

U. Feldman, M. Swartz, and L. Cohen, Rev. Sci. Instr. 38, 1372 (1967).
[Crossref]

U. Feldman, L. Cohen, and M. Swartz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 535 (1967).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1965 (2)

L. N. Khudyakova, E. K. Gutnikova, and L. V. Tarasova, Soviet Phys.—Tech. Phys. 9, 1572 (1965).

S. K. Händel and J. M. Berg, Arkiv Fysik 31, 1 (1965).

1963 (1)

S. K. Händel, Brit. J. Appl. Phys. 14, 181 (1963).
[Crossref]

1961 (2)

P. O. Schörling, Arkiv Fysik 21, 371 (1961).

P. O. Schörling, Arkiv Fysik 19, 47 (1961).

Berg, J. M.

S. K. Händel and J. M. Berg, Arkiv Fysik 31, 1 (1965).

Cohen, L.

U. Feldman and L. Cohen, Astrophys. J. 149, 265 (1967).
[Crossref]

U. Feldman, M. Swartz, and L. Cohen, Rev. Sci. Instr. 38, 1372 (1967).
[Crossref]

U. Feldman, L. Cohen, and M. Swartz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 535 (1967).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

U. Feldman, L. Cohen, and M. Swartz, Astrophys. J. 148, 585 (1967).
[Crossref]

Feldman, U.

U. Feldman, L. Cohen, and M. Swartz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 535 (1967).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

U. Feldman, M. Swartz, and L. Cohen, Rev. Sci. Instr. 38, 1372 (1967).
[Crossref]

U. Feldman, L. Cohen, and M. Swartz, Astrophys. J. 148, 585 (1967).
[Crossref]

U. Feldman and L. Cohen, Astrophys. J. 149, 265 (1967).
[Crossref]

Gates, W.

W. M. Neupert, W. Gates, M. Swartz, and R. Young, Astrophys. J. 149, L49 (1967).
[Crossref]

Gutnikova, E. K.

L. N. Khudyakova, E. K. Gutnikova, and L. V. Tarasova, Soviet Phys.—Tech. Phys. 9, 1572 (1965).

Händel, S. K.

S. K. Händel and J. M. Berg, Arkiv Fysik 31, 1 (1965).

S. K. Händel, Brit. J. Appl. Phys. 14, 181 (1963).
[Crossref]

Khudyakova, L. N.

L. N. Khudyakova, E. K. Gutnikova, and L. V. Tarasova, Soviet Phys.—Tech. Phys. 9, 1572 (1965).

Lie, T. N.

T. N. Lie (private communication) has used a streak camera to photograph a similar spark in visible light. His observations confirm the existence of a multiple pinch effect.

Neupert, W. M.

W. M. Neupert, W. Gates, M. Swartz, and R. Young, Astrophys. J. 149, L49 (1967).
[Crossref]

Schörling, P. O.

P. O. Schörling, Arkiv Fysik 21, 371 (1961).

P. O. Schörling, Arkiv Fysik 19, 47 (1961).

Swartz, M.

U. Feldman, M. Swartz, and L. Cohen, Rev. Sci. Instr. 38, 1372 (1967).
[Crossref]

U. Feldman, L. Cohen, and M. Swartz, Astrophys. J. 148, 585 (1967).
[Crossref]

U. Feldman, L. Cohen, and M. Swartz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 535 (1967).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. M. Neupert, W. Gates, M. Swartz, and R. Young, Astrophys. J. 149, L49 (1967).
[Crossref]

Tarasova, L. V.

L. N. Khudyakova, E. K. Gutnikova, and L. V. Tarasova, Soviet Phys.—Tech. Phys. 9, 1572 (1965).

Young, R.

W. M. Neupert, W. Gates, M. Swartz, and R. Young, Astrophys. J. 149, L49 (1967).
[Crossref]

Arkiv Fysik (3)

S. K. Händel and J. M. Berg, Arkiv Fysik 31, 1 (1965).

P. O. Schörling, Arkiv Fysik 21, 371 (1961).

P. O. Schörling, Arkiv Fysik 19, 47 (1961).

Astrophys. J. (3)

W. M. Neupert, W. Gates, M. Swartz, and R. Young, Astrophys. J. 149, L49 (1967).
[Crossref]

U. Feldman, L. Cohen, and M. Swartz, Astrophys. J. 148, 585 (1967).
[Crossref]

U. Feldman and L. Cohen, Astrophys. J. 149, 265 (1967).
[Crossref]

Brit. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. K. Händel, Brit. J. Appl. Phys. 14, 181 (1963).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Rev. Sci. Instr. (1)

U. Feldman, M. Swartz, and L. Cohen, Rev. Sci. Instr. 38, 1372 (1967).
[Crossref]

Soviet Phys.—Tech. Phys. (1)

L. N. Khudyakova, E. K. Gutnikova, and L. V. Tarasova, Soviet Phys.—Tech. Phys. 9, 1572 (1965).

Other (1)

T. N. Lie (private communication) has used a streak camera to photograph a similar spark in visible light. His observations confirm the existence of a multiple pinch effect.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Drawing of the vacuum spark source.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of the Bragg crystal spectrograph.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Pinhole photographs of a spark with vanadium electrodes at 19 kV. The left image was taken with a pinhole 0.06 cm in diam, the right with a pinhole 0.03 cm in diam. The images were recorded on Kodak No-Screen x-ray film, covered with black paper to exclude visible light.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Time variation of the photomultiplier x-ray current and dI/dt during a typical discharge. Iron electrodes, 19 kV.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Microdensitometer tracing through an x-ray spectrogram made with 100 sparks. Iron electrodes, 19 kV.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Isoelectronic-sequence plot for the He i sequence. Squares—present data. Circles—data obtained from previously published wavelength lists. The point for Ar xvii was obtained by the Culham group using a plasma focus as the source; see footnote a to Table I.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table I Wavelengths of lines in the He i isoelectronic sequence.

Equations (1)

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I max = V 0 ( C / L ) 1 2 ,