Abstract

A preliminary determination has been made of the photometric properties of the lunar surface from high–resolution pictures received from the Surveyor I spacecraft. Several target areas were chosen at selected locations around the spacecraft, and photometric measurements were taken with the television camera throughout the lunar day. Surveyor I data agree within ±20% with the terrestrially observed photometric properties. Initial examination of the data indicates no anomalies of the photometric properties of homogeneous areas on scales greater than 6 cm in diameter. Luminance factors were estimated from the observed data and ranged from 7.0% to 7.5% for more than 91% of the area; however, values of 5% to 25% were recorded in some locations. The chromaticity coordinates of the disturbed area near one of the footpads were found to be very close to natural sunlight on a gray paint. A preliminary estimate of the spectral radiance factor of this area is given, using an eigenvector-analysis technique. The spacecraft characteristics, viewing geometry, and ground-recording techniques are included, along with a brief description of errors.

© 1968 Optical Society of America

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Corrections

J. J. Rennilson, H. E. Holt, and E. C. Morris, "Erratum: In Situ Measurements of the Photometric Properties of an Area on the Lunar Surface," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 1545-1545 (1968)
https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-58-11-1545

References

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  1. H. N. Russell, Astrophys. J. XLIII, 173 (1916).
    [Crossref]
  2. N. N. Sytinskaya and V. V. Sharonov, Leningrad Universitet, Astronomicheskaia Observatoria, Uchenye Zapiski, No. 153, pp. 114–154 (1952) (in Russian); Trudy 16, 114–154 (1953); Trans. by Space Technology Lab., Inc., , May1961.
  3. D. Willingham, The Lunar Reflectivity Model for Ranger Block III Analysis, (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, November, 1964).
  4. B. Hapke, Astron. J. 71, 333 (1966).
    [Crossref]
  5. J. Rennilson, in Proceedings of the 8th International Color Meeting, Lucerne, Switzerland (Centre d’Information de la Couleur, 23 Rue Notre-Dame-des-Victoires, Paris, 1965).
  6. J. L. Simonds, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 968 (1963).
    [Crossref]
  7. D. B. Judd, D. L. MacAdam, and G. Wyszecki, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 1031 (1964).
    [Crossref]
  8. H. A. Pohn and R. L. Wildey, A Photoelectric-Photographic Map of the Normal Albedo of the Moon, Open File Reports (U. S. Geological Survey, Branch of Astrogeology, Washington, D. C., 1966).

1966 (1)

B. Hapke, Astron. J. 71, 333 (1966).
[Crossref]

1964 (1)

1963 (1)

1916 (1)

H. N. Russell, Astrophys. J. XLIII, 173 (1916).
[Crossref]

Hapke, B.

B. Hapke, Astron. J. 71, 333 (1966).
[Crossref]

Judd, D. B.

MacAdam, D. L.

Pohn, H. A.

H. A. Pohn and R. L. Wildey, A Photoelectric-Photographic Map of the Normal Albedo of the Moon, Open File Reports (U. S. Geological Survey, Branch of Astrogeology, Washington, D. C., 1966).

Rennilson, J.

J. Rennilson, in Proceedings of the 8th International Color Meeting, Lucerne, Switzerland (Centre d’Information de la Couleur, 23 Rue Notre-Dame-des-Victoires, Paris, 1965).

Russell, H. N.

H. N. Russell, Astrophys. J. XLIII, 173 (1916).
[Crossref]

Sharonov, V. V.

N. N. Sytinskaya and V. V. Sharonov, Leningrad Universitet, Astronomicheskaia Observatoria, Uchenye Zapiski, No. 153, pp. 114–154 (1952) (in Russian); Trudy 16, 114–154 (1953); Trans. by Space Technology Lab., Inc., , May1961.

Simonds, J. L.

Sytinskaya, N. N.

N. N. Sytinskaya and V. V. Sharonov, Leningrad Universitet, Astronomicheskaia Observatoria, Uchenye Zapiski, No. 153, pp. 114–154 (1952) (in Russian); Trudy 16, 114–154 (1953); Trans. by Space Technology Lab., Inc., , May1961.

Wildey, R. L.

H. A. Pohn and R. L. Wildey, A Photoelectric-Photographic Map of the Normal Albedo of the Moon, Open File Reports (U. S. Geological Survey, Branch of Astrogeology, Washington, D. C., 1966).

Willingham, D.

D. Willingham, The Lunar Reflectivity Model for Ranger Block III Analysis, (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, November, 1964).

Wyszecki, G.

Astron. J. (1)

B. Hapke, Astron. J. 71, 333 (1966).
[Crossref]

Astrophys. J. (1)

H. N. Russell, Astrophys. J. XLIII, 173 (1916).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

Other (4)

H. A. Pohn and R. L. Wildey, A Photoelectric-Photographic Map of the Normal Albedo of the Moon, Open File Reports (U. S. Geological Survey, Branch of Astrogeology, Washington, D. C., 1966).

N. N. Sytinskaya and V. V. Sharonov, Leningrad Universitet, Astronomicheskaia Observatoria, Uchenye Zapiski, No. 153, pp. 114–154 (1952) (in Russian); Trudy 16, 114–154 (1953); Trans. by Space Technology Lab., Inc., , May1961.

D. Willingham, The Lunar Reflectivity Model for Ranger Block III Analysis, (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, November, 1964).

J. Rennilson, in Proceedings of the 8th International Color Meeting, Lucerne, Switzerland (Centre d’Information de la Couleur, 23 Rue Notre-Dame-des-Victoires, Paris, 1965).

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Figures (18)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

View of the lunar surface southeast of the Surveyor I spacecraft, showing a cratered, gently rolling surface littered with debris ranging in size from blocks about 1 m across to smaller fragments set in a matrix of fine particles. The 36°-wide view of the lunar horizon is less than 0.5 km from the spacecraft, and the prominent block in the middle of the mosaic is approximately 40 cm wide and 18 cm high. The footpad and photometric target of the spacecraft appear in the lower right.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical path in the Surveyor I television camera.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Surveyor I spacecraft, showing the location of the photometric targets.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Omnidirectional-antenna photometric target. The center pin and its shadow aid in estimating the angles of incidence and emittance. Gray steps around the perimeter are symmetrical with respect to the target axis.

Fig 5
Fig 5

Lunar photometric geometry: (a) as viewed from the earth, and (b) as viewed on the lunar surface. Symbols: ⊙, sun; ⊗, earth; ≯, camera line of sight; A, azimuth angle; g, phase angle; i, angle of incidence; N, surface normal; α, luminance longitude (negative toward normal in the sun direction); , angle of emittance.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Relative spectral response the the Surveyor I television camera at the clear position of the filter wheel.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Over-all camera-filter spectral response, normalized by equal area to CIE functions. The first x ¯ maximum is obtained by scaling the z ¯ function.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

The light-transfer characteristic of the Surveyor I camera. Symbols: □, f/4; ○, f/8; ×, f/22; ♢, f/8, open shutter; △, blue filter; ▲, green filter; josa-58-6-747-i001, red filter.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Laboratory goniophotometer constructed from a spectrometer.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Typical calibration of a gray step from a photometric target. Each step was measured at three azimuth angles: ——, 0°; - - -, 60°; and, — — — 120°.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Complete transfer characteristic of the television and ground recording system. Iris, f/20.2; clear filter.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Location of lunar areas selected for photometric measurement. The sun line is a ground trace of the path of the sun during the lunar day. The distances are plotted from the camera logarithmically and the relative sizes of the areas sampled are shown. Lunar north is shown by the arrow; the horizontal line is the sun line. Target areas are shaded, and × marks the intersection of the camera azimuth and elevation axes. Distances are in meters.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Plot of the Surveyor I photometric data. The solid curves are smoothed data from terrestrial observation (after Willingham), and only the pertinent luminance-longitude angles are shown. The dotted curve is for Hapke’s function (δ = sin 45°, f = 0.9, h = 0.4, α = −47°). Other values of α are: △, −70 to −80°; ○, −55 to −65°; □, −40 to −50°; ● less than −30°.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

A cross plot of phase angle vs luminance longitude from terrestrial observations. Surveyor I data are plotted for various phase angles. Solid dots indicate terrestrial-data scatter for the corresponding phase-angle curves. Similar scatter is found for the remaining dotted phase-angle curves, but was omitted for simplicity. Values of g are shown by the following symbols: ○, 4°; △, 29°; ♢, 41°; >, 47°; □, 88°.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

CIE chromaticity diagram, with the coordinates of the photometric-target steps and the lunar surface plotted. Photometric-target steps are shown by circles; camera-measured steps, by crosses.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Example of a reconstituted spectral reflectance curve of a terrestrial rock (Twin Sisters dunite). The reconstitution was made by eigenvector analysis. For comparison purposes, the spectrophotometric curve of the rock is included. The maximum error was 1.37%, and the variance was 1.18%. Actual values are shown by the solid line, and the reconstitution by the dashed line.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

Estimate of the spectral radiance factor of the area near the footpad, obtained by an eigenvector analysis.

Fig. 18
Fig. 18

Camera light-transfer characteristic at five points on the Vidicon, using computer-digitized video voltages. Iris, f/4.0, clear filter; -○-, 1; -□-, 2; -△-, 3; ×, 4; -♢-, 5.

Equations (5)

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L = π E 0 β 0 ϕ ( i , , A ) ,
Y = M ( X ) ,
X = k x 1 R z + k x 2 R x Y = k y R y Z = k z R z ,
i = 1 n ( X i X i ) 2 = i = 1 n ( Y i Y i ) 2 = i = 1 n ( Z i Z i ) 2 a minimum ,
X = ( 0.035 ) R z + ( 0.157 ) R x Y = ( 0.044 ) R y Z = ( 0.035 ) R z .