Abstract

Increment and decrement contrast thresholds have been measured for stimuli 15 min to 4.3° diam and repeated durations of 20 to 1000 msec. The fixation point was 7° from the fovea. The increment threshold was consistently greater than decrement threshold.

© 1968 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H. B. Barlow, J. Physiol. (London) 136, 469 (1957).
  2. A. Rose, Proc. IRE 30, 293 (1942).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Rose, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 196 (1948).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. H. DeVries, Physica 10, 553 (1943).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. A. Bouman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 40, 825 (1950).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. B. Barlow, J. Physiol. (London) 141, 337 (1958).
  7. H. B. Barlow, in Photophysiology, A. C. Giese, Ed. (Academic Press Inc., New York, 1964), Vol. 2, p. 163.
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. B. Barlow, Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 30, 539 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. R. Blackwell, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 36, 624 (1946).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. R. M. Herrick, J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 49, 437 (1956).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J. W. T. Walsh, Photometry (Constable, London, 1958), p. 315.
  12. H. K. Hartline, Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 3, 245 (1935).
    [CrossRef]
  13. E. F. MacNichol and H. K. Hartline, Federation Proc. 7, 76 (1948).
  14. R. L. DeValois, in Contributions to Sensory Physiology, W. D. Neff, Ed. (Academic Press Inc., New York, 1965), Vol. 1, p. 137.
    [CrossRef]

1965 (1)

H. B. Barlow, Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 30, 539 (1965).
[CrossRef]

1958 (1)

H. B. Barlow, J. Physiol. (London) 141, 337 (1958).

1957 (1)

H. B. Barlow, J. Physiol. (London) 136, 469 (1957).

1956 (1)

R. M. Herrick, J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 49, 437 (1956).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1950 (1)

1948 (2)

A. Rose, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 196 (1948).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. F. MacNichol and H. K. Hartline, Federation Proc. 7, 76 (1948).

1946 (1)

1943 (1)

H. DeVries, Physica 10, 553 (1943).
[CrossRef]

1942 (1)

A. Rose, Proc. IRE 30, 293 (1942).
[CrossRef]

1935 (1)

H. K. Hartline, Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 3, 245 (1935).
[CrossRef]

Barlow, H. B.

H. B. Barlow, Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 30, 539 (1965).
[CrossRef]

H. B. Barlow, J. Physiol. (London) 141, 337 (1958).

H. B. Barlow, J. Physiol. (London) 136, 469 (1957).

H. B. Barlow, in Photophysiology, A. C. Giese, Ed. (Academic Press Inc., New York, 1964), Vol. 2, p. 163.
[CrossRef]

Blackwell, H. R.

Bouman, M. A.

DeValois, R. L.

R. L. DeValois, in Contributions to Sensory Physiology, W. D. Neff, Ed. (Academic Press Inc., New York, 1965), Vol. 1, p. 137.
[CrossRef]

DeVries, H.

H. DeVries, Physica 10, 553 (1943).
[CrossRef]

Hartline, H. K.

E. F. MacNichol and H. K. Hartline, Federation Proc. 7, 76 (1948).

H. K. Hartline, Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 3, 245 (1935).
[CrossRef]

Herrick, R. M.

R. M. Herrick, J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 49, 437 (1956).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

MacNichol, E. F.

E. F. MacNichol and H. K. Hartline, Federation Proc. 7, 76 (1948).

Rose, A.

Walsh, J. W. T.

J. W. T. Walsh, Photometry (Constable, London, 1958), p. 315.

Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. (2)

H. B. Barlow, Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 30, 539 (1965).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Hartline, Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 3, 245 (1935).
[CrossRef]

Federation Proc. (1)

E. F. MacNichol and H. K. Hartline, Federation Proc. 7, 76 (1948).

J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. (1)

R. M. Herrick, J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 49, 437 (1956).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (3)

J. Physiol. (London) (2)

H. B. Barlow, J. Physiol. (London) 136, 469 (1957).

H. B. Barlow, J. Physiol. (London) 141, 337 (1958).

Physica (1)

H. DeVries, Physica 10, 553 (1943).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IRE (1)

A. Rose, Proc. IRE 30, 293 (1942).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

H. B. Barlow, in Photophysiology, A. C. Giese, Ed. (Academic Press Inc., New York, 1964), Vol. 2, p. 163.
[CrossRef]

J. W. T. Walsh, Photometry (Constable, London, 1958), p. 315.

R. L. DeValois, in Contributions to Sensory Physiology, W. D. Neff, Ed. (Academic Press Inc., New York, 1965), Vol. 1, p. 137.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Diagram of apparatus; explanation in text.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Log threshold luminance |±ΔI| vs log background luminance (I). a1 b1, c1, and d1 are increment thresholds whereas a2, b2, c2, and d2 are decrement thresholds. a1 and a2 are for 15 diam, 50-msec duration. b1 and b2 are for 15 diam, 1000-msec duration. c1 and c2 are for 4.3° diam, 20-msec duration, d1 and d2 are for 4.3° diam, 1000-msec duration. Line S corresponds to the highest possible contrast (100%) for decrement threshold. Lines in lower right corner indicate slopes predicted by fluctuation theory (F) and Weber–Fechner law (W).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Ratio R = (|+ΔI)/(|−ΔI|) vs log background luminance, I. Curves a, b, c, and d correspond to pairs a1, a2; b1, b2; c1, c2; and d1, d2 in Fig. 2.

Equations (1)

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C = | Δ I | / I = ( I t I ) / I for increment test field ( i . e . , I t > I ) , = ( I I t ) / I for decrement test field ( i . e . , I > I t ) .