Abstract

Reflected-light microscopy of semitransparent material, such as unstained nervous tissue, is usually unsatisfactory because of low contrast and light scattering. In a new microscope both the object plane and the image plane were scanned in tandem so that only light reflected from the object plane was included in the image. The object was illuminated with nearly incoherent light passing through holes in one side of a rotating scanning disk (Nipkow wheel) which was imaged by the objective into the object plane. Reflected-light images of these spots were conducted to the opposite side of the same disk. Light could pass from the source to the object plane, and from the object to the image plane, only through optically congruent holes on opposite side of the rotating disk. The image obtained had better contrast and sharpness for some semitransparent material than possible in usual reflected-light microscopy.

© 1968 Optical Society of America

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  1. An extension of the theory given here indicates that a similar principal could be employed to build an optical microscope with a resolving power greater than that predicted by the Rayleigh and Abbe theories (superresolution in the sense of Herzberger). Such a microscope would be related to the system described theoretically, from another point of view, by W. Lukosz and M. Marchand, Opt. Acta 10, 241 (1963); see also W. Lukosz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1463 (1966); A. Bachl and W. Lukosz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 932 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Petráň and M. Hadravský, Czechoslovakian patent appl. 7720, 1966.
  3. Perfected by Zeiss. Cited by M. Françon, Progress in Microscopy (Row, Peterson and Co., Evanston, Ill., 1961), p. 131.
  4. A disk of tantalum carbide or hafnium carbide excited by radio frequency would provide a better source of light for our purpose. S. C. Peek, Illumin. Eng. 52, 96 (1957).
  5. M. D. Egger and M. Petráň, Science 157, 305 (1967).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1967 (1)

M. D. Egger and M. Petráň, Science 157, 305 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1963 (1)

An extension of the theory given here indicates that a similar principal could be employed to build an optical microscope with a resolving power greater than that predicted by the Rayleigh and Abbe theories (superresolution in the sense of Herzberger). Such a microscope would be related to the system described theoretically, from another point of view, by W. Lukosz and M. Marchand, Opt. Acta 10, 241 (1963); see also W. Lukosz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1463 (1966); A. Bachl and W. Lukosz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 932 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1957 (1)

A disk of tantalum carbide or hafnium carbide excited by radio frequency would provide a better source of light for our purpose. S. C. Peek, Illumin. Eng. 52, 96 (1957).

Egger, M. D.

M. D. Egger and M. Petráň, Science 157, 305 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Françon, M.

Perfected by Zeiss. Cited by M. Françon, Progress in Microscopy (Row, Peterson and Co., Evanston, Ill., 1961), p. 131.

Hadravský, M.

M. Petráň and M. Hadravský, Czechoslovakian patent appl. 7720, 1966.

Lukosz, W.

An extension of the theory given here indicates that a similar principal could be employed to build an optical microscope with a resolving power greater than that predicted by the Rayleigh and Abbe theories (superresolution in the sense of Herzberger). Such a microscope would be related to the system described theoretically, from another point of view, by W. Lukosz and M. Marchand, Opt. Acta 10, 241 (1963); see also W. Lukosz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1463 (1966); A. Bachl and W. Lukosz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 932 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Marchand, M.

An extension of the theory given here indicates that a similar principal could be employed to build an optical microscope with a resolving power greater than that predicted by the Rayleigh and Abbe theories (superresolution in the sense of Herzberger). Such a microscope would be related to the system described theoretically, from another point of view, by W. Lukosz and M. Marchand, Opt. Acta 10, 241 (1963); see also W. Lukosz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1463 (1966); A. Bachl and W. Lukosz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 932 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Peek, S. C.

A disk of tantalum carbide or hafnium carbide excited by radio frequency would provide a better source of light for our purpose. S. C. Peek, Illumin. Eng. 52, 96 (1957).

Petrán, M.

M. D. Egger and M. Petráň, Science 157, 305 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Petráň and M. Hadravský, Czechoslovakian patent appl. 7720, 1966.

Illumin. Eng. (1)

A disk of tantalum carbide or hafnium carbide excited by radio frequency would provide a better source of light for our purpose. S. C. Peek, Illumin. Eng. 52, 96 (1957).

Opt. Acta (1)

An extension of the theory given here indicates that a similar principal could be employed to build an optical microscope with a resolving power greater than that predicted by the Rayleigh and Abbe theories (superresolution in the sense of Herzberger). Such a microscope would be related to the system described theoretically, from another point of view, by W. Lukosz and M. Marchand, Opt. Acta 10, 241 (1963); see also W. Lukosz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1463 (1966); A. Bachl and W. Lukosz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 932 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

M. D. Egger and M. Petráň, Science 157, 305 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

M. Petráň and M. Hadravský, Czechoslovakian patent appl. 7720, 1966.

Perfected by Zeiss. Cited by M. Françon, Progress in Microscopy (Row, Peterson and Co., Evanston, Ill., 1961), p. 131.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the microscope. The prism systems are indicated as mirrors. The polarizer, analyzer, quarter-wave plate system is not shown.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Photograph of the microscope. The white arrows show the adjusting screws for aligning the inverting prism systems. B is the bellows through which light passes to the pentagonal prism P and into the microscope. E is the top of the eyepiece. N is the Nipkow-wheel housing. O is the objective with its housing.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Rotating scanning disk (Nipkow wheel).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Detail of the wheel. The apparent differences of the diameters of the holes is a photographic artefact.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The vertical lines form an image of a plastic replica of a diffraction grating of 528 lines/mm, covered by a sheet of transparent plastic and immersed in 0.65% saline. (a). With scanning disk in the microscope. The diagonal lines are scanning lines. (b). With scanning disk removed.

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

r = E s / ( E s + E n ) .
r = E s / ( E s + E n ) = E s / [ E s + ( A / A 0 ) E n 0 ] .
r 0 r = [ ( E s / E n 0 ) + ( A / A 0 ) ] / [ ( E s / E n 0 ) + 1 ] ,
E ¯ s = 1 T 0 T E s d t .
E ¯ s = 1 T 0 T E s d t = 1 T 0 δ E s d t δ T E s = A 0 A E s .
E ¯ s + E ¯ n = 1 T 0 T ( E s + E n ) d t 1 T ( δ · E s + T · E n 0 ) = ( A 0 / A ) E s + E n 0 .
r ¯ = E s / [ E s + ( A / A 0 ) E n 0 ] .
E ¯ n = ( δ / T ) E ¯ n = ( A 0 / A ) E ¯ n = ( A 0 / A ) E n 0 .
r ¯ = E s / ( E s + E n 0 ) = r 0 ,