Abstract

The focused beam of an argon-ion laser was used as a light source for Raman-scattering experiments in gases. Photoelectric recording of rotation-vibration Raman spectra has been observed from about 10<sup>11</sup> gas molecules in the focal region of the laser beam. The focusing geometry used to illuminate the gas samples is discussed and the important parameters of the optical system for collecting the Raman-scattered light from the small volumes are considered. The pulse-counting detection system is described and the new experimental results are presented.

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  1. A. Weber, S. P. S. Porto, L. E. Cheesman, and J. J. Barrett, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 19 (1967).
  2. S. P. S. Porto and D. L. Wood, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 251 (1962).
  3. H. Kogelnik and S. P. S. Porto, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 1446 (1963).
  4. R. C. C. Leite and S. P. S. Porto, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 981 (1964). S. P. S. Porto, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 122, 643 (1965).
  5. J. A. Koningstein and R. G. Smith, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 1061 (1964).
  6. A. Weber and S. P. S. Porto, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 1033 (1965)
  7. J. H. Callomon, Can. J. Phys. 34, 1046 (1956).
  8. H. L. Welsh, E. J. Stansbury, J. Romanko, and T. Feldman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 338 (1955).
  9. G. B. Benedek and K. Fritsch, Phys. Rev. 149, 647 (1966).
  10. G. D. Boyd and J. P. Gordon, Bell System Tech. J. 40, 489 (1961).
  11. G. D. Boyd and H. Kogelnik, Bell System Tech. J. 41, 1347 (1962).
  12. J. G. Atwood, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 1343 (1963).
  13. A. Maréchal, Traité d'Optique Instrumentale, Tome I. Imagerie-Géométrique Aberrations (Editions de la Revue d'Optique Théorique et Instrumentale, Paris, 1952), p. 14.
  14. K. Halbach, Am. J. Phys. 32, 90 (1964).
  15. J. D. Rigden, IEEE J. Quant. Elec. 1, 221 (1965).
  16. W. A. Baum in Astronomical Techniques, W. A. Hiltner, Ed. (University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1962), Vol. II, p. 1.
  17. W. A. Baum, Sky and Telescope 14, 264 (1955); 14, 330 (1955).
  18. H. L. Johnson, Sky and Telescope 17, 558 (1958).
  19. H. L. Johnson, in Astronomical Techniques, W. A. Hiltner, Ed. (University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1962), Vol. II, p. 157.
  20. T. Dunham, Jr. in Vistas in Astronomy, A. Beer, Ed. (Pergamon Press, New York, 1956), Vol. II, p. 1268.
  21. W. Blitzstein, in Astronomical Photoelectric Photometry, F. B. Wood, Ed. (Washington: American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1953), p. 64.
  22. L. Colli, U. Facchini and A. Rossi, Nuovo Cimento 11, 255 (1954).
  23. E. H. Eberhardt, IEEE Trans. Nuclear Science NS-11, 48 (1964).
  24. E. H. Eberhardt, Appl. Opt. 6, 161 (1967).
  25. S. P. S. Porto, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 11, 79 (1966).
  26. A. T. Young, Rev. Sci. Instr. 37, 1472 (1966).
  27. A. Weber and E. A. McGinnis, J. Mol. Spectry. 4, 195 (1960).
  28. B. P. Stoicheff, Can. J. Phys. 32, 630 (1954).
  29. B. P. Stoicheff, Can. J. Phys. 36, 218 (1958).
  30. B. P. Stoicheff in Advances in Spectroscopy, H. W. Thompson, Ed. (Interscience Publishers, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1959), Vol. I., p. 91.
  31. B. P. Stoicheff in Methods of Experimental Physics, D. Williams, Ed. (Academic Press Inc., New York 1962), Vol. III, p. 111.
  32. The previous photographic work was done with high-resolution low-aperture spectrographs (approximately f/50) whereas in our experiments the aperture ratio of the spectrometer was f/8. This fact should be taken into account when making a comparison of exposure times.
  33. G. Herzberg, Spectra of Diatomic Molecules (D. Van Nostrand Co., Inc., New York, 1950), 2nd ed., p. 133.

Atwood, J. G.

J. G. Atwood, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 1343 (1963).

Barrett, J. J.

A. Weber, S. P. S. Porto, L. E. Cheesman, and J. J. Barrett, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 19 (1967).

Baum, W. A.

W. A. Baum in Astronomical Techniques, W. A. Hiltner, Ed. (University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1962), Vol. II, p. 1.

W. A. Baum, Sky and Telescope 14, 264 (1955); 14, 330 (1955).

Benedek, G. B.

G. B. Benedek and K. Fritsch, Phys. Rev. 149, 647 (1966).

Blitzstein, W.

W. Blitzstein, in Astronomical Photoelectric Photometry, F. B. Wood, Ed. (Washington: American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1953), p. 64.

Boyd, G. D.

G. D. Boyd and J. P. Gordon, Bell System Tech. J. 40, 489 (1961).

G. D. Boyd and H. Kogelnik, Bell System Tech. J. 41, 1347 (1962).

Callomon, J. H.

J. H. Callomon, Can. J. Phys. 34, 1046 (1956).

Cheesman, L. E.

A. Weber, S. P. S. Porto, L. E. Cheesman, and J. J. Barrett, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 19 (1967).

Colli, L.

L. Colli, U. Facchini and A. Rossi, Nuovo Cimento 11, 255 (1954).

Dunham, Jr., T.

T. Dunham, Jr. in Vistas in Astronomy, A. Beer, Ed. (Pergamon Press, New York, 1956), Vol. II, p. 1268.

Eberhardt, E. H.

E. H. Eberhardt, IEEE Trans. Nuclear Science NS-11, 48 (1964).

E. H. Eberhardt, Appl. Opt. 6, 161 (1967).

Facchini, U.

L. Colli, U. Facchini and A. Rossi, Nuovo Cimento 11, 255 (1954).

Feldman, T.

H. L. Welsh, E. J. Stansbury, J. Romanko, and T. Feldman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 338 (1955).

Fritsch, K.

G. B. Benedek and K. Fritsch, Phys. Rev. 149, 647 (1966).

Gordon, J. P.

G. D. Boyd and J. P. Gordon, Bell System Tech. J. 40, 489 (1961).

Halbach, K.

K. Halbach, Am. J. Phys. 32, 90 (1964).

Herzberg, G.

G. Herzberg, Spectra of Diatomic Molecules (D. Van Nostrand Co., Inc., New York, 1950), 2nd ed., p. 133.

Johnson, H. L.

H. L. Johnson, Sky and Telescope 17, 558 (1958).

H. L. Johnson, in Astronomical Techniques, W. A. Hiltner, Ed. (University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1962), Vol. II, p. 157.

Kogelnik, H.

G. D. Boyd and H. Kogelnik, Bell System Tech. J. 41, 1347 (1962).

H. Kogelnik and S. P. S. Porto, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 1446 (1963).

Koningstein, J. A.

J. A. Koningstein and R. G. Smith, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 1061 (1964).

Leite, R. C. C.

R. C. C. Leite and S. P. S. Porto, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 981 (1964). S. P. S. Porto, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 122, 643 (1965).

Maréchal, A.

A. Maréchal, Traité d'Optique Instrumentale, Tome I. Imagerie-Géométrique Aberrations (Editions de la Revue d'Optique Théorique et Instrumentale, Paris, 1952), p. 14.

McGinnis, E. A.

A. Weber and E. A. McGinnis, J. Mol. Spectry. 4, 195 (1960).

Porto, S. P. S.

S. P. S. Porto, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 11, 79 (1966).

R. C. C. Leite and S. P. S. Porto, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 981 (1964). S. P. S. Porto, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 122, 643 (1965).

H. Kogelnik and S. P. S. Porto, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 1446 (1963).

S. P. S. Porto and D. L. Wood, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 251 (1962).

A. Weber, S. P. S. Porto, L. E. Cheesman, and J. J. Barrett, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 19 (1967).

A. Weber and S. P. S. Porto, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 1033 (1965)

Rigden, J. D.

J. D. Rigden, IEEE J. Quant. Elec. 1, 221 (1965).

Romanko, J.

H. L. Welsh, E. J. Stansbury, J. Romanko, and T. Feldman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 338 (1955).

Rossi, A.

L. Colli, U. Facchini and A. Rossi, Nuovo Cimento 11, 255 (1954).

Smith, R. G.

J. A. Koningstein and R. G. Smith, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 1061 (1964).

Stansbury, E. J.

H. L. Welsh, E. J. Stansbury, J. Romanko, and T. Feldman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 338 (1955).

Stoicheff, B. P.

B. P. Stoicheff, Can. J. Phys. 32, 630 (1954).

B. P. Stoicheff, Can. J. Phys. 36, 218 (1958).

B. P. Stoicheff in Advances in Spectroscopy, H. W. Thompson, Ed. (Interscience Publishers, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1959), Vol. I., p. 91.

B. P. Stoicheff in Methods of Experimental Physics, D. Williams, Ed. (Academic Press Inc., New York 1962), Vol. III, p. 111.

Weber, A.

A. Weber and E. A. McGinnis, J. Mol. Spectry. 4, 195 (1960).

A. Weber and S. P. S. Porto, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 1033 (1965)

A. Weber, S. P. S. Porto, L. E. Cheesman, and J. J. Barrett, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 19 (1967).

Welsh, H. L.

H. L. Welsh, E. J. Stansbury, J. Romanko, and T. Feldman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 338 (1955).

Wood, D. L.

S. P. S. Porto and D. L. Wood, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 251 (1962).

Young, A. T.

A. T. Young, Rev. Sci. Instr. 37, 1472 (1966).

Other (33)

A. Weber, S. P. S. Porto, L. E. Cheesman, and J. J. Barrett, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 19 (1967).

S. P. S. Porto and D. L. Wood, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 251 (1962).

H. Kogelnik and S. P. S. Porto, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 1446 (1963).

R. C. C. Leite and S. P. S. Porto, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 981 (1964). S. P. S. Porto, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 122, 643 (1965).

J. A. Koningstein and R. G. Smith, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 1061 (1964).

A. Weber and S. P. S. Porto, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 1033 (1965)

J. H. Callomon, Can. J. Phys. 34, 1046 (1956).

H. L. Welsh, E. J. Stansbury, J. Romanko, and T. Feldman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 338 (1955).

G. B. Benedek and K. Fritsch, Phys. Rev. 149, 647 (1966).

G. D. Boyd and J. P. Gordon, Bell System Tech. J. 40, 489 (1961).

G. D. Boyd and H. Kogelnik, Bell System Tech. J. 41, 1347 (1962).

J. G. Atwood, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 1343 (1963).

A. Maréchal, Traité d'Optique Instrumentale, Tome I. Imagerie-Géométrique Aberrations (Editions de la Revue d'Optique Théorique et Instrumentale, Paris, 1952), p. 14.

K. Halbach, Am. J. Phys. 32, 90 (1964).

J. D. Rigden, IEEE J. Quant. Elec. 1, 221 (1965).

W. A. Baum in Astronomical Techniques, W. A. Hiltner, Ed. (University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1962), Vol. II, p. 1.

W. A. Baum, Sky and Telescope 14, 264 (1955); 14, 330 (1955).

H. L. Johnson, Sky and Telescope 17, 558 (1958).

H. L. Johnson, in Astronomical Techniques, W. A. Hiltner, Ed. (University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1962), Vol. II, p. 157.

T. Dunham, Jr. in Vistas in Astronomy, A. Beer, Ed. (Pergamon Press, New York, 1956), Vol. II, p. 1268.

W. Blitzstein, in Astronomical Photoelectric Photometry, F. B. Wood, Ed. (Washington: American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1953), p. 64.

L. Colli, U. Facchini and A. Rossi, Nuovo Cimento 11, 255 (1954).

E. H. Eberhardt, IEEE Trans. Nuclear Science NS-11, 48 (1964).

E. H. Eberhardt, Appl. Opt. 6, 161 (1967).

S. P. S. Porto, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 11, 79 (1966).

A. T. Young, Rev. Sci. Instr. 37, 1472 (1966).

A. Weber and E. A. McGinnis, J. Mol. Spectry. 4, 195 (1960).

B. P. Stoicheff, Can. J. Phys. 32, 630 (1954).

B. P. Stoicheff, Can. J. Phys. 36, 218 (1958).

B. P. Stoicheff in Advances in Spectroscopy, H. W. Thompson, Ed. (Interscience Publishers, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1959), Vol. I., p. 91.

B. P. Stoicheff in Methods of Experimental Physics, D. Williams, Ed. (Academic Press Inc., New York 1962), Vol. III, p. 111.

The previous photographic work was done with high-resolution low-aperture spectrographs (approximately f/50) whereas in our experiments the aperture ratio of the spectrometer was f/8. This fact should be taken into account when making a comparison of exposure times.

G. Herzberg, Spectra of Diatomic Molecules (D. Van Nostrand Co., Inc., New York, 1950), 2nd ed., p. 133.

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