Abstract

The Bayside Laboratory, Research Center of General Telephone & Electronics Laboratories Incorporated, Bayside, New York 11360 (Received 28 April 1967) Theoretical and experimental evaluation of three low-level photodetection techniques, namely, lock-in, noise-voltage, and electron-pulse counting are presented. The 992 cm<sup>-1</sup> Raman band of benzene excited by a 4.2-mW He-Ne laser operating at 6328 Å provided a weak light signal which was detected by an EMI 9558 A, cooled photomultiplier. The electron-pulse-counting method employing a pulse-height discriminator was found to be superior to the other methods with regard to both signal sensitivity and signal-to-noise ratio.

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  1. A. Van Der Ziel, Noise (Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1954), Ch. 13.
  2. R. C. A. Phototubes and Photocells, Technical Manual PT-60, 1963.
  3. Y. H. Pao, R. N. Zitter, and J. E. Griffiths, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 11, 111 (1966).
  4. Y. H. Pao, R. N. Zitter, and J. E. Griffiths, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1133 (1966).
  5. E. H. Eberhardt, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-11(3), 48 (1964).
  6. R. F. Tusting, Q. A. Kerns, and H. K. Knudsen, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-9(3), 118 (1962).

Van Der Ziel, A.

A. Van Der Ziel, Noise (Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1954), Ch. 13.

Eberhardt, E. H.

E. H. Eberhardt, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-11(3), 48 (1964).

Griffiths, J. E.

Y. H. Pao, R. N. Zitter, and J. E. Griffiths, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 11, 111 (1966).

Y. H. Pao, R. N. Zitter, and J. E. Griffiths, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1133 (1966).

Kerns, Q. A.

R. F. Tusting, Q. A. Kerns, and H. K. Knudsen, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-9(3), 118 (1962).

Knudsen, H. K.

R. F. Tusting, Q. A. Kerns, and H. K. Knudsen, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-9(3), 118 (1962).

Pao, Y. H.

Y. H. Pao, R. N. Zitter, and J. E. Griffiths, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1133 (1966).

Y. H. Pao, R. N. Zitter, and J. E. Griffiths, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 11, 111 (1966).

Tusting, R. F.

R. F. Tusting, Q. A. Kerns, and H. K. Knudsen, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-9(3), 118 (1962).

Zitter, R. N.

Y. H. Pao, R. N. Zitter, and J. E. Griffiths, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 11, 111 (1966).

Y. H. Pao, R. N. Zitter, and J. E. Griffiths, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1133 (1966).

Other (6)

A. Van Der Ziel, Noise (Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1954), Ch. 13.

R. C. A. Phototubes and Photocells, Technical Manual PT-60, 1963.

Y. H. Pao, R. N. Zitter, and J. E. Griffiths, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 11, 111 (1966).

Y. H. Pao, R. N. Zitter, and J. E. Griffiths, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1133 (1966).

E. H. Eberhardt, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-11(3), 48 (1964).

R. F. Tusting, Q. A. Kerns, and H. K. Knudsen, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-9(3), 118 (1962).

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