Abstract

The time-integrated radiant energy from laser-produced and laser-heated breakdown plasmas was spectroscopically examined. The spectra consisted of a strong continuum with several lines. Band spectra characteristic of molecular species could not be detected in pure diatomic gases. The lines were very broad especially in the same spatial region as that from which the continuum was emitted. Line spectra emitted from outside this region were predominantly from un-ionized atoms. The spectral lines from singly ionized atoms were emitted in a volume only slightly larger than that for the continuum. Photomultiplier–interference-filter measurements of the afterglow indicated that in nitrogen the atom lines last five times as long as do the ion lines. When the peak laser power exceeded 600 MW the spectrum of doubly ionized nitrogen atoms was detected. The absence of molecular spectra and the threshold for the appearance of doubly ionized nitrogen indicate that the plasma may be in a state of total equilibrium at a high temperature.

© 1968 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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  9. S. L. Mandelstam, P. P. Pashinin, A. V. Prokhindeev, A. M. Prokhorov, and N. K. Sukhodrev, Zh. Eksperim. i Teor. Fiz. 47, 2003 (1964) [English transl.: Soviet Physics.—JETP 20, 1344 (1965)]; also, P. P. Pashinin, S. L. Mandelstam, A. M. Prokhorov, and N. K. Sukhodrev, Z. Angew. Math. Phys. 16, 125 (1965); also, S. L. Mandelstam, P. P. Pashinin, A. M. Prokhorov, and N. K. Sukhodrev, in Physics of Quantum Electronics, P. L. Kelley and et al., Eds. (McGraw–Hill Book Company, New York, 1966), p. 548.
    [Crossref]
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  14. C. E. Moore, A Multiplet Table of Astrophysical Interest, Natl. Bur. Std. (U. S.), Tech. Note 36, November1959.
  15. W. L. Wiese, M. W. Smith, and B. M. Glennon, Atomic Transition Probabilities, Volume I. Hydrogen Through Neon, , May20, 1966.
  16. H. W. Drawin and P. Felenbok, Data for Plasmas in Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (Gauthier–Villars, Paris, 1965).
  17. Ya. B. Zeldovich and Yu. P. Raizer, Physics of Shock Waves and High-Temperature Hydrodynamic Phenomena (Academic Press Inc., New York, 1966) p. 212.

1967 (1)

J. W. Daiber and H. M. Thompson, Phys. Fluids 10, 1162 (1967).
[Crossref]

1966 (1)

T. P. Evtushenko, Q. N. Zaidel, G. V. Ostrovskaya, and T. Ya. Chelidze, Zh. Tekhn. Fiz. 36, 1506 (1966) [English transl.: Soviet Phys.—Tech. Phys. 11, 1126 (1967)].

1965 (3)

J. W. Daiber, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 10, 477 (1965).

D. H. Gill and A. A. Dougal, Phys. Rev. Letters 15, 845 (1965).
[Crossref]

R. W. Waynant and J. H. Ramsey, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 602 (1965).

1964 (3)

S. A. Ramsden and P. Savic, Nature 203, 1217 (1964).
[Crossref]

R. W. Minck, J. Appl. Phys. 35, 252 (1964).
[Crossref]

S. L. Mandelstam, P. P. Pashinin, A. V. Prokhindeev, A. M. Prokhorov, and N. K. Sukhodrev, Zh. Eksperim. i Teor. Fiz. 47, 2003 (1964) [English transl.: Soviet Physics.—JETP 20, 1344 (1965)]; also, P. P. Pashinin, S. L. Mandelstam, A. M. Prokhorov, and N. K. Sukhodrev, Z. Angew. Math. Phys. 16, 125 (1965); also, S. L. Mandelstam, P. P. Pashinin, A. M. Prokhorov, and N. K. Sukhodrev, in Physics of Quantum Electronics, P. L. Kelley and et al., Eds. (McGraw–Hill Book Company, New York, 1966), p. 548.
[Crossref]

1963 (2)

1959 (1)

C. E. Moore, A Multiplet Table of Astrophysical Interest, Natl. Bur. Std. (U. S.), Tech. Note 36, November1959.

Chelidze, T. Ya.

T. P. Evtushenko, Q. N. Zaidel, G. V. Ostrovskaya, and T. Ya. Chelidze, Zh. Tekhn. Fiz. 36, 1506 (1966) [English transl.: Soviet Phys.—Tech. Phys. 11, 1126 (1967)].

Daiber, J. W.

J. W. Daiber and H. M. Thompson, Phys. Fluids 10, 1162 (1967).
[Crossref]

J. W. Daiber, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 10, 477 (1965).

Damon, E. K.

Dougal, A. A.

D. H. Gill and A. A. Dougal, Phys. Rev. Letters 15, 845 (1965).
[Crossref]

Drawin, H. W.

H. W. Drawin and P. Felenbok, Data for Plasmas in Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (Gauthier–Villars, Paris, 1965).

Evtushenko, T. P.

T. P. Evtushenko, Q. N. Zaidel, G. V. Ostrovskaya, and T. Ya. Chelidze, Zh. Tekhn. Fiz. 36, 1506 (1966) [English transl.: Soviet Phys.—Tech. Phys. 11, 1126 (1967)].

Felenbok, P.

H. W. Drawin and P. Felenbok, Data for Plasmas in Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (Gauthier–Villars, Paris, 1965).

Gill, D. H.

D. H. Gill and A. A. Dougal, Phys. Rev. Letters 15, 845 (1965).
[Crossref]

Glennon, B. M.

W. L. Wiese, M. W. Smith, and B. M. Glennon, Atomic Transition Probabilities, Volume I. Hydrogen Through Neon, , May20, 1966.

Griem, H. R.

H. R. Griem, Plasma Spectroscopy (McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1964).

Harrison, G. R.

G. R. Harrison, M.I.T. Wavelength Tables (John Wiley Sons, Inc., New York, 1939).

Haught, A. F.

R. G. Meyerand and A. F. Haught, Phys. Rev. Letters 11, 401 (1963).
[Crossref]

Herzberg, G.

G. Herzberg, Infrared and Raman Spectra (D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc., Princeton, 1945), p. 335.

Mandelstam, S. L.

S. L. Mandelstam, P. P. Pashinin, A. V. Prokhindeev, A. M. Prokhorov, and N. K. Sukhodrev, Zh. Eksperim. i Teor. Fiz. 47, 2003 (1964) [English transl.: Soviet Physics.—JETP 20, 1344 (1965)]; also, P. P. Pashinin, S. L. Mandelstam, A. M. Prokhorov, and N. K. Sukhodrev, Z. Angew. Math. Phys. 16, 125 (1965); also, S. L. Mandelstam, P. P. Pashinin, A. M. Prokhorov, and N. K. Sukhodrev, in Physics of Quantum Electronics, P. L. Kelley and et al., Eds. (McGraw–Hill Book Company, New York, 1966), p. 548.
[Crossref]

Meyerand, R. G.

R. G. Meyerand and A. F. Haught, Phys. Rev. Letters 11, 401 (1963).
[Crossref]

Minck, R. W.

R. W. Minck, J. Appl. Phys. 35, 252 (1964).
[Crossref]

Moore, C. E.

C. E. Moore, A Multiplet Table of Astrophysical Interest, Natl. Bur. Std. (U. S.), Tech. Note 36, November1959.

Ostrovskaya, G. V.

T. P. Evtushenko, Q. N. Zaidel, G. V. Ostrovskaya, and T. Ya. Chelidze, Zh. Tekhn. Fiz. 36, 1506 (1966) [English transl.: Soviet Phys.—Tech. Phys. 11, 1126 (1967)].

Pashinin, P. P.

S. L. Mandelstam, P. P. Pashinin, A. V. Prokhindeev, A. M. Prokhorov, and N. K. Sukhodrev, Zh. Eksperim. i Teor. Fiz. 47, 2003 (1964) [English transl.: Soviet Physics.—JETP 20, 1344 (1965)]; also, P. P. Pashinin, S. L. Mandelstam, A. M. Prokhorov, and N. K. Sukhodrev, Z. Angew. Math. Phys. 16, 125 (1965); also, S. L. Mandelstam, P. P. Pashinin, A. M. Prokhorov, and N. K. Sukhodrev, in Physics of Quantum Electronics, P. L. Kelley and et al., Eds. (McGraw–Hill Book Company, New York, 1966), p. 548.
[Crossref]

Prokhindeev, A. V.

S. L. Mandelstam, P. P. Pashinin, A. V. Prokhindeev, A. M. Prokhorov, and N. K. Sukhodrev, Zh. Eksperim. i Teor. Fiz. 47, 2003 (1964) [English transl.: Soviet Physics.—JETP 20, 1344 (1965)]; also, P. P. Pashinin, S. L. Mandelstam, A. M. Prokhorov, and N. K. Sukhodrev, Z. Angew. Math. Phys. 16, 125 (1965); also, S. L. Mandelstam, P. P. Pashinin, A. M. Prokhorov, and N. K. Sukhodrev, in Physics of Quantum Electronics, P. L. Kelley and et al., Eds. (McGraw–Hill Book Company, New York, 1966), p. 548.
[Crossref]

Prokhorov, A. M.

S. L. Mandelstam, P. P. Pashinin, A. V. Prokhindeev, A. M. Prokhorov, and N. K. Sukhodrev, Zh. Eksperim. i Teor. Fiz. 47, 2003 (1964) [English transl.: Soviet Physics.—JETP 20, 1344 (1965)]; also, P. P. Pashinin, S. L. Mandelstam, A. M. Prokhorov, and N. K. Sukhodrev, Z. Angew. Math. Phys. 16, 125 (1965); also, S. L. Mandelstam, P. P. Pashinin, A. M. Prokhorov, and N. K. Sukhodrev, in Physics of Quantum Electronics, P. L. Kelley and et al., Eds. (McGraw–Hill Book Company, New York, 1966), p. 548.
[Crossref]

Raizer, Yu. P.

Ya. B. Zeldovich and Yu. P. Raizer, Physics of Shock Waves and High-Temperature Hydrodynamic Phenomena (Academic Press Inc., New York, 1966) p. 212.

Ramsden, S. A.

S. A. Ramsden and P. Savic, Nature 203, 1217 (1964).
[Crossref]

Ramsey, J. H.

R. W. Waynant and J. H. Ramsey, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 602 (1965).

Savic, P.

S. A. Ramsden and P. Savic, Nature 203, 1217 (1964).
[Crossref]

Smith, M. W.

W. L. Wiese, M. W. Smith, and B. M. Glennon, Atomic Transition Probabilities, Volume I. Hydrogen Through Neon, , May20, 1966.

Sukhodrev, N. K.

S. L. Mandelstam, P. P. Pashinin, A. V. Prokhindeev, A. M. Prokhorov, and N. K. Sukhodrev, Zh. Eksperim. i Teor. Fiz. 47, 2003 (1964) [English transl.: Soviet Physics.—JETP 20, 1344 (1965)]; also, P. P. Pashinin, S. L. Mandelstam, A. M. Prokhorov, and N. K. Sukhodrev, Z. Angew. Math. Phys. 16, 125 (1965); also, S. L. Mandelstam, P. P. Pashinin, A. M. Prokhorov, and N. K. Sukhodrev, in Physics of Quantum Electronics, P. L. Kelley and et al., Eds. (McGraw–Hill Book Company, New York, 1966), p. 548.
[Crossref]

Thompson, H. M.

J. W. Daiber and H. M. Thompson, Phys. Fluids 10, 1162 (1967).
[Crossref]

Tomlinson, R. G.

Waynant, R. W.

R. W. Waynant and J. H. Ramsey, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 602 (1965).

Wiese, W. L.

W. L. Wiese, M. W. Smith, and B. M. Glennon, Atomic Transition Probabilities, Volume I. Hydrogen Through Neon, , May20, 1966.

Zaidel, Q. N.

T. P. Evtushenko, Q. N. Zaidel, G. V. Ostrovskaya, and T. Ya. Chelidze, Zh. Tekhn. Fiz. 36, 1506 (1966) [English transl.: Soviet Phys.—Tech. Phys. 11, 1126 (1967)].

Zeldovich, Ya. B.

Ya. B. Zeldovich and Yu. P. Raizer, Physics of Shock Waves and High-Temperature Hydrodynamic Phenomena (Academic Press Inc., New York, 1966) p. 212.

A Multiplet Table of Astrophysical Interest (1)

C. E. Moore, A Multiplet Table of Astrophysical Interest, Natl. Bur. Std. (U. S.), Tech. Note 36, November1959.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. (1)

J. W. Daiber, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 10, 477 (1965).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

R. W. Minck, J. Appl. Phys. 35, 252 (1964).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

R. W. Waynant and J. H. Ramsey, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 602 (1965).

Nature (1)

S. A. Ramsden and P. Savic, Nature 203, 1217 (1964).
[Crossref]

Phys. Fluids (1)

J. W. Daiber and H. M. Thompson, Phys. Fluids 10, 1162 (1967).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Letters (2)

R. G. Meyerand and A. F. Haught, Phys. Rev. Letters 11, 401 (1963).
[Crossref]

D. H. Gill and A. A. Dougal, Phys. Rev. Letters 15, 845 (1965).
[Crossref]

Zh. Eksperim. i Teor. Fiz. (1)

S. L. Mandelstam, P. P. Pashinin, A. V. Prokhindeev, A. M. Prokhorov, and N. K. Sukhodrev, Zh. Eksperim. i Teor. Fiz. 47, 2003 (1964) [English transl.: Soviet Physics.—JETP 20, 1344 (1965)]; also, P. P. Pashinin, S. L. Mandelstam, A. M. Prokhorov, and N. K. Sukhodrev, Z. Angew. Math. Phys. 16, 125 (1965); also, S. L. Mandelstam, P. P. Pashinin, A. M. Prokhorov, and N. K. Sukhodrev, in Physics of Quantum Electronics, P. L. Kelley and et al., Eds. (McGraw–Hill Book Company, New York, 1966), p. 548.
[Crossref]

Zh. Tekhn. Fiz. (1)

T. P. Evtushenko, Q. N. Zaidel, G. V. Ostrovskaya, and T. Ya. Chelidze, Zh. Tekhn. Fiz. 36, 1506 (1966) [English transl.: Soviet Phys.—Tech. Phys. 11, 1126 (1967)].

Other (6)

G. R. Harrison, M.I.T. Wavelength Tables (John Wiley Sons, Inc., New York, 1939).

H. R. Griem, Plasma Spectroscopy (McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1964).

G. Herzberg, Infrared and Raman Spectra (D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc., Princeton, 1945), p. 335.

W. L. Wiese, M. W. Smith, and B. M. Glennon, Atomic Transition Probabilities, Volume I. Hydrogen Through Neon, , May20, 1966.

H. W. Drawin and P. Felenbok, Data for Plasmas in Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (Gauthier–Villars, Paris, 1965).

Ya. B. Zeldovich and Yu. P. Raizer, Physics of Shock Waves and High-Temperature Hydrodynamic Phenomena (Academic Press Inc., New York, 1966) p. 212.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Comparison of argon spectra obtained from a Geissler tube and from laser-induced breakdown. The lower spectrum of each pair is from the Geissler tube. The upper spectrum is of the breakdown spark viewed normal to the laser axis.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Comparison of nitrogen spectra obtained from a Geissler tube and from laser-induced breakdown. The lower spectrum is from the Geissler tube. The upper spectrum is of the breakdown spark viewed normal to the laser axis. At shorter wavelengths the breakdown spectra also show many ion lines and a background continuum.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Typical time-resolved radiation records at 5700 Å and 8600 Å in nitrogen. Time increases from left to right.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Emission spectra of nitrogen gas. The laser pulse was (a) 380 MW, 5.5 J and (b) 650 MW, 7.8 J.