Abstract

The optical constants of <i>p</i>-type tin telluride at room temperature have been determined as functions of carrier concentration over the spectral range from 0.1 to 3.8 eV. The indices of refraction and absorption coefficients were obtained from analysis of normal reflectance and transmittance measurements on epitaxial films ranging in carrier concentration from 3.6×10<sup>19</sup> to 6.8×10<sup>20</sup> cm<sup>-3</sup>. At energies greater than approximately 1.0 eV the optical dispersion is found to arise primarily from bound carriers. In contrast, the dispersion at energies less than about 0.4 eV is in excellent agreement with that calculated on the basis of classical free-carrier dispersion. The fundamental absorption edge is characterized by a large, Burstein-type shift produced by changes of carrier concentration. Bound-carrier indices of refraction <i>n</i><sub>BC</sub> are found to be unusually large and carrier-concentration dependent. A Kramers-Kronig analysis gives values of <i>n</i><sub>BC</sub> in good agreement with experiment for energies less than 2 eV. Extrapolation of our experimental values of <i>n</i><sub>BC</sub> to zero energy using the Kramers-Kronig relation yielded values of the optical dielectric constant <i>ε</i><sub>∞</sub>. This quantity is found to be carrier-concentration dependent, ranging in value from 38 to 46 for the carrier concentrations studied here. It is shown that this variation in <i>ε</i><sub>∞</sub>, is primarily due to the Burstein shift of the fundamental absorption edge.

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  2. J. Umeda, M. Jeong, and T. Okada, J. Appl. Phys. (Japan) 1, 277 (1962).
  3. R. Mazelsky and M. S. Lubell, Nonstoichiometric Compounds (American Chemical Society, Washington, D. C., 1963), Series 39, p. 210.
  4. J. A. Kafalas, R. F. Brebrick, and A. J. Strauss, Appl. Phys. Letters 4, 93 (1964).
  5. R. F. Brebrick and A. J. Strauss, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 41, 197 (1964).
  6. B. B. Houston, R. S. Allgaier, J. Babiskin, and P. G. Siebenmann, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 9, 60 (1964).
  7. A. Sager and R. C. Miller, in Proceedings of the International Conference on Semiconductor Physics, Exeter, 1962 (The Institute of Physics and the Physical Society, London, 1962), p. 653.
  8. R. S. Allgaier and B. B. Houston, in Proceedings of the International Conference on Semiconductor Physics, Exeter, 1962 (The Institute of Physics and the Physical Society, London, 1962), p. 172.
  9. R. F. Brebrick and A. J. Strauss, Phys. Rev. 131, 104 (1963).
  10. J. Richard Burke, Jr., R. S. Allgaier, B. B. Houston, Jr., J. Babiskin, and P. G. Siebenmann, Phys. Rev. Letters 14, 360 (1965).
  11. E. G. Bylander, J. R. Dixon, H. R. Riedl, and R. B. Schoolar, Phys. Rev. 138, A864 (1965).
  12. H. R. Riedl, R. B. Schoolar, and Bland Houston, Solid State Commun. 4, 399 (1966).
  13. R. B. Schoolar, H. R. Riedl, and J. R. Dixon, Solid State Commun. 4, 423 (1966).
  14. H. Finkenrath and H. Kohler, Phys. Letters 23, 437 (1966); 24A, 261 (1967).
  15. J. N. Zemel, J. D. Jensen, and R. B. Schoolar, Phys. Rev. 140, A330 (1965).
  16. R. B. Schoolar and J. R. Dixon, Phys. Rev. 137, A667 (1965).
  17. Paul R. Wessel, Phys. Rev. 153, 836 (1967).
  18. H. R. Riedl, J. R. Dixon, and R. B. Schoolar, Solid State Commun. 2, 323 (1965); H. R. Riedl and R. B. Schoolar, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 11, 348 (1966); Phys. Rev. 162, 692 (1967).
  19. J. F. Hall, Jr., and W. F. C. Ferguson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 714 (1955).
  20. O. S. Heavens, Optical Properties of Thin Solid Films (Academic Press Inc., New York, 1955), Ch. 4, p. 58.
  21. Paul M. Grant and William Paul, J. Appl. Phys. 37, 3110 (1966); Paul M. Grant, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 10, 546 (1965).
  22. T. S. Moss, Optical Properties of Semni-Conductors (Academic Press Inc., New York, 1959), Ch. 1, p. 14.
  23. Manuel Cardona and D. L. Greenaway, Phys. Rev. 133, A1685 (1964).
  24. W. W. Scanlon, Solid State Physics (Academic Press Inc. New York, 1959), Vol. IX, p. 115.
  25. Frank Stern, Phys. Rev. 133, A1653 (1964).

Allgaier, R. S.

B. B. Houston, R. S. Allgaier, J. Babiskin, and P. G. Siebenmann, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 9, 60 (1964).

R. S. Allgaier and B. B. Houston, in Proceedings of the International Conference on Semiconductor Physics, Exeter, 1962 (The Institute of Physics and the Physical Society, London, 1962), p. 172.

J. Richard Burke, Jr., R. S. Allgaier, B. B. Houston, Jr., J. Babiskin, and P. G. Siebenmann, Phys. Rev. Letters 14, 360 (1965).

Babiskin, J.

J. Richard Burke, Jr., R. S. Allgaier, B. B. Houston, Jr., J. Babiskin, and P. G. Siebenmann, Phys. Rev. Letters 14, 360 (1965).

B. B. Houston, R. S. Allgaier, J. Babiskin, and P. G. Siebenmann, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 9, 60 (1964).

Brebrick, R. F.

R. F. Brebrick and A. J. Strauss, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 41, 197 (1964).

R. F. Brebrick, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 24, 27 (1963).

J. A. Kafalas, R. F. Brebrick, and A. J. Strauss, Appl. Phys. Letters 4, 93 (1964).

R. F. Brebrick and A. J. Strauss, Phys. Rev. 131, 104 (1963).

Burke, Jr., J. Richard

J. Richard Burke, Jr., R. S. Allgaier, B. B. Houston, Jr., J. Babiskin, and P. G. Siebenmann, Phys. Rev. Letters 14, 360 (1965).

Bylander, E. G.

E. G. Bylander, J. R. Dixon, H. R. Riedl, and R. B. Schoolar, Phys. Rev. 138, A864 (1965).

Cardona, Manuel

Manuel Cardona and D. L. Greenaway, Phys. Rev. 133, A1685 (1964).

Dixon, J. R.

R. B. Schoolar, H. R. Riedl, and J. R. Dixon, Solid State Commun. 4, 423 (1966).

R. B. Schoolar and J. R. Dixon, Phys. Rev. 137, A667 (1965).

H. R. Riedl, J. R. Dixon, and R. B. Schoolar, Solid State Commun. 2, 323 (1965); H. R. Riedl and R. B. Schoolar, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 11, 348 (1966); Phys. Rev. 162, 692 (1967).

E. G. Bylander, J. R. Dixon, H. R. Riedl, and R. B. Schoolar, Phys. Rev. 138, A864 (1965).

Ferguson, W. F. C.

J. F. Hall, Jr., and W. F. C. Ferguson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 714 (1955).

Finkenrath, H.

H. Finkenrath and H. Kohler, Phys. Letters 23, 437 (1966); 24A, 261 (1967).

Grant, Paul M.

Paul M. Grant and William Paul, J. Appl. Phys. 37, 3110 (1966); Paul M. Grant, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 10, 546 (1965).

Greenaway, D. L.

Manuel Cardona and D. L. Greenaway, Phys. Rev. 133, A1685 (1964).

Hall, Jr., J. F.

J. F. Hall, Jr., and W. F. C. Ferguson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 714 (1955).

Heavens, O. S.

O. S. Heavens, Optical Properties of Thin Solid Films (Academic Press Inc., New York, 1955), Ch. 4, p. 58.

Houston, B. B.

R. S. Allgaier and B. B. Houston, in Proceedings of the International Conference on Semiconductor Physics, Exeter, 1962 (The Institute of Physics and the Physical Society, London, 1962), p. 172.

B. B. Houston, R. S. Allgaier, J. Babiskin, and P. G. Siebenmann, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 9, 60 (1964).

Houston, Bland

H. R. Riedl, R. B. Schoolar, and Bland Houston, Solid State Commun. 4, 399 (1966).

Houston, Jr., B. B.

J. Richard Burke, Jr., R. S. Allgaier, B. B. Houston, Jr., J. Babiskin, and P. G. Siebenmann, Phys. Rev. Letters 14, 360 (1965).

Jensen, J. D.

J. N. Zemel, J. D. Jensen, and R. B. Schoolar, Phys. Rev. 140, A330 (1965).

Jeong, M.

J. Umeda, M. Jeong, and T. Okada, J. Appl. Phys. (Japan) 1, 277 (1962).

Kafalas, J. A.

J. A. Kafalas, R. F. Brebrick, and A. J. Strauss, Appl. Phys. Letters 4, 93 (1964).

Kohler, H.

H. Finkenrath and H. Kohler, Phys. Letters 23, 437 (1966); 24A, 261 (1967).

Lubell, M. S.

R. Mazelsky and M. S. Lubell, Nonstoichiometric Compounds (American Chemical Society, Washington, D. C., 1963), Series 39, p. 210.

Mazelsky, R.

R. Mazelsky and M. S. Lubell, Nonstoichiometric Compounds (American Chemical Society, Washington, D. C., 1963), Series 39, p. 210.

Miller, R. C.

A. Sager and R. C. Miller, in Proceedings of the International Conference on Semiconductor Physics, Exeter, 1962 (The Institute of Physics and the Physical Society, London, 1962), p. 653.

Moss, T. S.

T. S. Moss, Optical Properties of Semni-Conductors (Academic Press Inc., New York, 1959), Ch. 1, p. 14.

Okada, T.

J. Umeda, M. Jeong, and T. Okada, J. Appl. Phys. (Japan) 1, 277 (1962).

Paul, William

Paul M. Grant and William Paul, J. Appl. Phys. 37, 3110 (1966); Paul M. Grant, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 10, 546 (1965).

Riedl, H. R.

R. B. Schoolar, H. R. Riedl, and J. R. Dixon, Solid State Commun. 4, 423 (1966).

H. R. Riedl, J. R. Dixon, and R. B. Schoolar, Solid State Commun. 2, 323 (1965); H. R. Riedl and R. B. Schoolar, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 11, 348 (1966); Phys. Rev. 162, 692 (1967).

H. R. Riedl, R. B. Schoolar, and Bland Houston, Solid State Commun. 4, 399 (1966).

E. G. Bylander, J. R. Dixon, H. R. Riedl, and R. B. Schoolar, Phys. Rev. 138, A864 (1965).

Sager, A.

A. Sager and R. C. Miller, in Proceedings of the International Conference on Semiconductor Physics, Exeter, 1962 (The Institute of Physics and the Physical Society, London, 1962), p. 653.

Scanlon, W. W.

W. W. Scanlon, Solid State Physics (Academic Press Inc. New York, 1959), Vol. IX, p. 115.

Schoolar, R. B.

H. R. Riedl, J. R. Dixon, and R. B. Schoolar, Solid State Commun. 2, 323 (1965); H. R. Riedl and R. B. Schoolar, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 11, 348 (1966); Phys. Rev. 162, 692 (1967).

J. N. Zemel, J. D. Jensen, and R. B. Schoolar, Phys. Rev. 140, A330 (1965).

R. B. Schoolar and J. R. Dixon, Phys. Rev. 137, A667 (1965).

E. G. Bylander, J. R. Dixon, H. R. Riedl, and R. B. Schoolar, Phys. Rev. 138, A864 (1965).

H. R. Riedl, R. B. Schoolar, and Bland Houston, Solid State Commun. 4, 399 (1966).

R. B. Schoolar, H. R. Riedl, and J. R. Dixon, Solid State Commun. 4, 423 (1966).

Siebenmann, P. G.

J. Richard Burke, Jr., R. S. Allgaier, B. B. Houston, Jr., J. Babiskin, and P. G. Siebenmann, Phys. Rev. Letters 14, 360 (1965).

B. B. Houston, R. S. Allgaier, J. Babiskin, and P. G. Siebenmann, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 9, 60 (1964).

Stern, Frank

Frank Stern, Phys. Rev. 133, A1653 (1964).

Strauss, A. J.

R. F. Brebrick and A. J. Strauss, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 41, 197 (1964).

J. A. Kafalas, R. F. Brebrick, and A. J. Strauss, Appl. Phys. Letters 4, 93 (1964).

R. F. Brebrick and A. J. Strauss, Phys. Rev. 131, 104 (1963).

Umeda, J.

J. Umeda, M. Jeong, and T. Okada, J. Appl. Phys. (Japan) 1, 277 (1962).

Wessel, Paul R.

Paul R. Wessel, Phys. Rev. 153, 836 (1967).

Zemel, J. N.

J. N. Zemel, J. D. Jensen, and R. B. Schoolar, Phys. Rev. 140, A330 (1965).

Other (25)

R. F. Brebrick, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 24, 27 (1963).

J. Umeda, M. Jeong, and T. Okada, J. Appl. Phys. (Japan) 1, 277 (1962).

R. Mazelsky and M. S. Lubell, Nonstoichiometric Compounds (American Chemical Society, Washington, D. C., 1963), Series 39, p. 210.

J. A. Kafalas, R. F. Brebrick, and A. J. Strauss, Appl. Phys. Letters 4, 93 (1964).

R. F. Brebrick and A. J. Strauss, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 41, 197 (1964).

B. B. Houston, R. S. Allgaier, J. Babiskin, and P. G. Siebenmann, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 9, 60 (1964).

A. Sager and R. C. Miller, in Proceedings of the International Conference on Semiconductor Physics, Exeter, 1962 (The Institute of Physics and the Physical Society, London, 1962), p. 653.

R. S. Allgaier and B. B. Houston, in Proceedings of the International Conference on Semiconductor Physics, Exeter, 1962 (The Institute of Physics and the Physical Society, London, 1962), p. 172.

R. F. Brebrick and A. J. Strauss, Phys. Rev. 131, 104 (1963).

J. Richard Burke, Jr., R. S. Allgaier, B. B. Houston, Jr., J. Babiskin, and P. G. Siebenmann, Phys. Rev. Letters 14, 360 (1965).

E. G. Bylander, J. R. Dixon, H. R. Riedl, and R. B. Schoolar, Phys. Rev. 138, A864 (1965).

H. R. Riedl, R. B. Schoolar, and Bland Houston, Solid State Commun. 4, 399 (1966).

R. B. Schoolar, H. R. Riedl, and J. R. Dixon, Solid State Commun. 4, 423 (1966).

H. Finkenrath and H. Kohler, Phys. Letters 23, 437 (1966); 24A, 261 (1967).

J. N. Zemel, J. D. Jensen, and R. B. Schoolar, Phys. Rev. 140, A330 (1965).

R. B. Schoolar and J. R. Dixon, Phys. Rev. 137, A667 (1965).

Paul R. Wessel, Phys. Rev. 153, 836 (1967).

H. R. Riedl, J. R. Dixon, and R. B. Schoolar, Solid State Commun. 2, 323 (1965); H. R. Riedl and R. B. Schoolar, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 11, 348 (1966); Phys. Rev. 162, 692 (1967).

J. F. Hall, Jr., and W. F. C. Ferguson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 714 (1955).

O. S. Heavens, Optical Properties of Thin Solid Films (Academic Press Inc., New York, 1955), Ch. 4, p. 58.

Paul M. Grant and William Paul, J. Appl. Phys. 37, 3110 (1966); Paul M. Grant, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 10, 546 (1965).

T. S. Moss, Optical Properties of Semni-Conductors (Academic Press Inc., New York, 1959), Ch. 1, p. 14.

Manuel Cardona and D. L. Greenaway, Phys. Rev. 133, A1685 (1964).

W. W. Scanlon, Solid State Physics (Academic Press Inc. New York, 1959), Vol. IX, p. 115.

Frank Stern, Phys. Rev. 133, A1653 (1964).

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